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    Title: 喬治.布拉克繪畫中的默想與反思
    Thoughts and reflections on Georges Braque's Paintings
    Authors: 王思宜
    Wang, Szu Yi
    Contributors: 阮若缺
    Juan, Ra Chel
    王思宜
    Wang, Szu Yi
    Keywords: 立體派
    布拉克
    現代主義
    拼貼
    cubism
    Braque
    modernism
    collage
    Date: 2016
    Issue Date: 2016-08-09 14:39:42 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 在西方藝術史上,立體主義突破了傳統繪畫空間觀,創立了新的藝術語言。立體派繪畫大師布拉克在1911年的作品《葡萄牙人》(Le Portugais) 所出現的印刷字體,是文字介入畫作的起源。立體派的效力於現代主義中持續迴響著,布拉克綜合立體主義的拼貼手法,為西方藝術發展帶來深刻的影響。立體主義是產生多樣性進化過程的起點,立體派畫家創造了新的藝術型態,其想法、態度傳播到其他的文化領域中,為今日藝術思潮奠定了重要的基礎。

    本文第一部分在探討布拉克立體派形成風格的演進過程,接續說明伴隨它們而生之創新意涵與影響力。布拉克創作的是一種理念的立體感,透過同時性與多視點的呈現來描繪主題,正是其藝術的本質所在。突破傳統單一視點觀察對象的方法,從各個方位相對地將對象進行分析、拆解與重組。布拉克承襲法國人文藝術傳統,使他的作品更富於哲學思考,本文最後進而探討布拉克作品中對繪畫藝術的默想與反思。
    In the history of Western art, cubism makes a breakthrough in the concept of traditional drawing space and in the creation of a new artistic language. Georges Braque (1882-1963), a leading figure of Cubism in early twentieth century, draw letters in his painting The Portuguese (1911), which could be seen as the first piece of art work setting words in paintings. The effects of cubism are reverberating still throughout Modernism. The artistic means of collage, initiated and developed by the central figure, Braque has exerted a profound impact on Western art. Cubism was the starting point of an evolutionary process that produced diversity. The cubists created a new artistic form for his attitudes and ideas that spread to other areas of culture and that to an important degree underlie artistic thought even today.

    The first part of this paper is devoted to an account of the evolution of cubism as a style, followed by a description of the innovation and influence that accompanied their birth. Georges Braque depicted the subject from multiple viewpoints to represent the subject at one time instead of depicting objects from one viewpoint. He challenged conventional forms of representation. In his artwork, objects are broken up, analyzed, and reassembled in an abstracted form. Georges Braque, as one of the two founders of cubism, inherits traditional French Humanities art, whose works are deep in philosophy thoughts. At the end, we'll pay regard to Georges Braque's thought and reflection by taking his paintings as examples.
    Reference: I. 中文書目

    尤昭良,《塞尚與柏格森》,台北:宜高文化,2003。
    丹托(Arthur Danto)著,鄧柏宸譯,《美的濫用:美學與藝術的概念》 (The abuse of Beauty-Aesthetics and the Concept of Art),台北:立緒文化,2008。
    克勞瑟(Paul Crowther)著,劉一平譯,《20世紀藝術的語言:觀念史》 (The language of twentieth-century art),長春:吉林人民出版社,2011。
    何政廣,《立體派繪畫大師-勃拉克》,台北:藝術家出版社,1996。
    何政廣,《歐美現代美術》,台北:藝術家出版社,2002。
    李長俊,《西洋美術史綱要》,台北:雄獅圖書公司,1980。
    李倍雷,《現代與後現代藝術的反思》,江西:江西美術出版社,2008。
    沃爾夫朗(Eddie Wolfram)著,傅嘉琿譯,《拼貼藝術之歷史》 (History of Collage),台北:遠流出版社,1994。
    林頓(Norbert Lynton)著,楊松鋒譯,《現代藝術的故事》(The story of modern art),台北:聯經出版公司,2003。
    周憲,《審美現代性批判》,北京:商務印書館,2005。
    契普(Herschel Browning Chipp)著,余珊珊譯,《現代藝術理論》(Theories of Modern Art: a Source Book by Artists and Critics),台北:遠流出版社,2004。
    科尼亞(Raymond Cogniat)著,徐慶平、衛衍賢合譯,《現代繪畫辭典》(Dictionnaire de la Peinture Moderne),北京:人民美術出版社,1991。
    格林伯格(Clement Greenberg)著,張心龍譯,《藝術與文化》(Art and Culture),台北:遠流出版社,1993。
    宮布利希(E. H. Gombrich) 著,雨云譯,《藝術的故事》(The Story of Art),台北:聯經出版社,2008。
    馬永健,《現代主義藝術20講》,上海:社會科學院出版社,2005。
    夏呂姆( Jean-Luc Chalumeau )著,陳英德、張彌彌合譯,《西方當代藝術史批評》(Histoire Critique de l'art Contemporain),台北:藝術家出版社,2002。
    莫斯欽卡(Anna Moszynska)著,黃麗絹譯,《抽象藝術》(Abstract Art),台北:遠流出版社,1999。
    梅洛龐帝(Maurice Merleau-Ponty)著,劉韶涵譯,《眼與心》(L' œil et l'Esprit),北京:中國社會科學出版社,1992。
    梅洛龐帝(Maurice Merleau-Ponty)著,姜志輝譯,《知覺現象學》(Phénoménologie de la perception),北京,商務印書館,2001。
    黃才郎,《西洋美術辭典》,台北:雄獅圖書公司,1992。
    張心龍,《西洋美術史之旅》,台北:雄獅美術出版,1999。
    詹明信(Frederic Jameson)著,唐小兵譯,《後現代主義與文化理論》(Postmodernism and Cultural Theories),台北:合志文化出版,2001。
    福謝羅(Serge Fauchereau)著,許季鴻譯,《西洋近現代巨匠畫集-布拉克》,台北:錦繡文化企業文庫出版社公司,1993。
    瑪奎(Jacques Maquet)著,武珊珊譯,《美感經驗:一位人類學者眼中的視覺藝術》(The Aesthetic Experience: An Anthropological Looks at the Visual Arts),台北:雄獅美術出版,2003。
    劉振源。《立體派繪畫》,台北:藝術圖書公司,1996。
    劉其偉。《現代繪畫基本理論》,台北:雄獅圖書公司,2003。
    歐那(Hugh Honour)、佛萊明(John Fleming)著,吳介禎等譯,《世界藝術史》(A World History of Art),台北:木馬文化,2001。
    戴費奧瑞等(Angelo De Flore et. al.)著,顧維周譯,《巨匠美術週刊-布拉克》,台北:錦繡出版,1993。
    羅滋勒(Willy Rotzler)著,吳瑪俐譯,《物體藝術》(Objekt Kunst),台北:遠流出版社,1991。
    蘭伯特(Rosemary Lambert)著,錢乘旦譯,《劍橋藝術史(8):二十世紀》(The Cambridge Introduction to Twentieth-Century),台北:桂冠圖書,2000。


    II. 中文期刊

    王婉如,<當布拉克遇到畢卡索-立體主義的對話與發展>,台灣美術,第65期,2006,頁76-79。
    沈清松,<感性、表象與崇高>,中山人文學報,第19期,2004,頁1-15。
    賴傳鑑,<勃拉克(Georges Braque)的生涯及藝術>,雄獅美術,第47期,1975,頁78-84。


    III. 外文書目

    Baudelaire, Charles. Le peintre de la vie moderne. Paris: Calmann Lévy, 1885.
    Bergson, Henri. Durée et simultanéité. Paris: Les Presses universitaires de France, 1968.
    Braque, Georges. Cahier de Georges Braque, 1917-1947. New York: C. Valentin, 1948.
    Braque, Georges. Illustrated notebooks, 1917-1955. Trans. by Stanley Appelbaum. New York: Dover, 1971.
    Braque, Georges. Le jour et la nuit: Cahiers 1917-1952. Paris: Gallimard, 1952.
    Clement, Russell T. Georges Braque: a bio-bibliography. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1994.
    Compagnon, Antoine. Les Cinq Paradoxes de la modernité. Paris: Seuil, 1990.
    Cooper, Douglas. Braque: The Great Years. Chicago: The Art Institute of Chicago, 1972. Catalogue of an exhibition held at the Art Institute of Chicago (7 Oct.-3 Dec. 1972).
    Cooper, Douglas. The Cubist Epoch. New Yoek: Phaidon Press, 1971.
    Danchev, Alex. Georges Braque:a life. New York: Arcade, 2005.
    De Romilly, Nicole Worms and Jean Laude. Braque: Cubism, 1907-1914. Paris: Maeght, 1982.
    Dor, Edouard. Sur les barques de Braque : dans l'attente de l'ultime traverse. Paris: Michel de Mauie, 2013.
    Drucker, Johanna. Theorizing Modernism: Visual Art and the Critical Tradition. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994.
    Durozoi, Gérard. Dictionnaire de L'art Moderne et Contemporain. Paris: Hazan, 1992.
    Esteban, Claude, Claude Frontisi, Théodore Reff et Véronique Serrano. Georges Braque et le paysage: De l'Estaque à Varangeville 1906-1963 catalogue de l'exposition au Musée Cantini à Marseille: Hazan, 2006
    Fauchereau, Serge. Braque. New York: Rizzoli, 1987.
    Fauchereau, Serge. La Révolution cubiste. Paris: Denoël, 1982.
    Fer, Briony, David Bachelor, and Paul Wood. Realism, Rationalism, Surrealism: Art
    between the Wars. New Haven and London :Yale University Press, 1993.
    Francastel, Pierre. Peinture et Société. Lyon: Audin, 1951.
    Frascina, Francis and Charles Harrison, eds. Modern Art and Modernism: A Critical
    Anthology. New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1982.
    Frascina, Francis and Jonathan Harris, eds. Art in modern culture:An Anthology of
    Critical Texts. London: Phaidon Press, 1992.
    Fry, Edward F. Cubism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978.
    Gieure, Maurice. G. Braque. Paris: Editions Pierre Tisné. New York: Universe Books, 1956.
    Golding, John, Bowness, Sophie, Monod-Fontaine, Isabelle. Braque: the late works. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997.
    Gooding, Mel. Abstract Art. New York: Cambridge University Press, c2001.
    Greenberg, Clement. Art and Culture. Boston: Beacon Press, 1971.
    Greene, Alison de Lima; Leal, Brigitte; Tinterow, Gary. Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. Georges Braque. Paris : Réunion des musées nationaux-Grand Palais, 2013.
    Harrison, Charles. Modernism. London: Tate Publishing, 1997.
    Harrison, Charles and Paul Wood, eds. Art in Theory 1900-1990 An Anthology of
    Changing Ideas. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers,1992.
    Harrison, Charles, Francis Frascina and Gill Perry. Primitivism, Cubism, Abstraction: The Early Twentieth Century. New Haven and Londen: Yale University Press, 1993.
    Hope, Henry R. Georges Braque. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1949.
    Jordan, Shirley Ann. The art criticism of Francis Ponge. London: W.S. Maney & Son LTD for the Modern Humanities Research Association, 1994.
    Judkins, Winthrop. Fluctuant representation in synthetic cubism: Picasso, Braque, Gris, 1910-1920. New York: Garland, 1976.
    Kahng, Eik et. al. Picasso and Braque: the Cubist experiment, 1910-1912. Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara Museum of Art & Fort Worth, Kimbell Art Museum, 2011.
    Leymarie, Jean. Braque. Genève: Skira, 1961.
    Leymarie, Jean, ed. Georges Braque. Solomon R. Guggenhein Museum, Munich, New York: Prestel, 1988.
    Lyotard, Jean-François. Postmoderne expliqué aux enfants-Correspondance 1982-1985. Paris: Editions Galilée, 1986.
    Merleau-Ponty, Maurice. La Nature : Note de Cours du Collège de France. Paris : Seuil, 1995.
    Monod-Fontaine, Isabelle. Georges Braque: les papiers collés: 17 juin-27 septembre 1982, Centre Georges Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne. Paris: Centre Georges Pompidou, 2011.
    Paulhan, Jean. Braque le patron. Paris: Gallimard, 2011.
    Ponge, Francis. Nouveau Recueil, Paris: Gallimard, 1967.
    Read, Herbert. A Concise History of Modern Painting. London: Thames & Hudson Ltd, 1959.
    Rosenblum, Robert. Cubism and Twentieth Century Art. New York: Harry N. Abrams. 1960.
    Rubin, William. Picasso and Braque: a symposium. New York: Museum of Modern Art. New York: Harry N. Abrams. 1992.
    Rubin, William. Picasso and Braque: pioneering of cubism. New York: Museum of Modern Art. Toronto: Bulfinch Press. 1989.
    Stangos, Nikos. Concepts of modern art: from fauvism to postmodernism. New York: Thames and Hudson. 1994.
    Vailler, Dora. L'intérieur de l'art. Braque, la peinture et nous. Paris: Seuil, 1982.
    Wilkin, Karen. Georges Braque. New York: Abbeville Press, 1991.
    Zurcher, Bernard. Georges Braque, life and work. Trans. by Simon Nye. New York: Zizzoli, 1988.


    IV. 外文期刊

    Georges Braque, “Pensées et réflexions sur la peinture.” Nord-sud, vol.1, no,10, December 1917.
    Martin, Alvin. “The Late Braque at the Phillips and Some Comments on the Centennial.” Art Journal 43, no. 1, Spring 1983.
    Richardson, John. “The Ateliers of Braque .” The Burlington Magazine, vol. 97, no. 627, Jun., 1955
    Ries, Martin. “Braque's Ateliers and the Symbolic Bird.” Journal of Aesthetic Education. University of Illinois Press, vol. 29, no 2, Summer 1995.


    V. 網路資料

    Université Paris-Sorbonne, LABEX OBVIL, Apollinaire
    (最後瀏覽日期:2016/06/28)
    http://obvil.paris-sorbonne.fr/corpus/apollinaire/meditations-esthetiques/

    Université Paris-Est Créteil Val de Marne, SCD, Francis Ponge
    (最後瀏覽日期:2016/07/01)
    http://aura.u-pec.fr/scd/ponge/ponge_panneau5.htm

    Université Paris 8, Bibliotheque, Rimbaud
    (最後瀏覽日期:2016/07/01)
    http://hypermedia.univ-paris8.fr/bibliotheque/Rimbaud/Correspondance.html

    Grand Palais, Georges Braque
    (最後瀏覽日期:2016/07/01)
    http://www.grandpalais.fr/pdf/dossier_pedagogique/Dossier_pedago_BRAQUE.pdf

    Musée du Louvre, Georges Braque
    (最後瀏覽日期:2016/07/01)
    http://aura.u-pec.fr/scd/ponge/ponge_panneau5.htm
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    歐洲語文學程碩士在職專班(MPES)
    98952003
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0098952003
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[歐洲語文學系] 學位論文

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