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    Title: 日本學校事故與國家賠償責任認定之考察-以日本學校事故判例法理為引
    On School Accident and State Compensation Decision: Refer to the Case Law of School Accident in Japan
    Authors: 宋峻杰
    Chun-Chieh, Sung
    Contributors: 法學評論
    Keywords: 學校事故;國家賠償;安全注意義務;行蹤掌握義務;受教育權;成長發展權;教育條件整備權;在學契約;與有過失;修復式正義
    School Accident;State Compensation;Safety Duty of Care;Duty of Understanding One’s Whereabouts;Right to Receive Education;Right to Development;Right to Education Condition Maintenance;Student Enrollment Agreement;Comparative Negligence;Restorative Justice
    Date: 2017-03
    Issue Date: 2019-07-24 15:58:57 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 近年來,我國司法實務上乃出現有學童、抑或學生因國公立學校設施整備不當或是教師違背安全注意義務而遭逢傷害,事後由本人及其法定代理人共同向校方提起國家賠償請求之訴的案例。基於學校教育乃國家為落實保障人民受教育權所應當採取之諸多政策中的重要一環,故透過「學校事故」與國家賠償責任制度的探討,進一步明確指出國家(政府)真正應為之事,乃有其意義。惟「學校事故」因人、因時與因地之各種條件,而具多樣性,因此基於憲法保障兒童人權(受教育權)之觀點,審視法院是否對於各種案例之前因後果,有適當的理解並從而依法且合理地裁定原告之訴訟請求乃有其必要。本文即試以鄰國日本為他山之石,對其累積迄今之龐雜的學校事故判例法理,於部分條件限定下進行一整理與檢討的工作。
    Recently there have been lawsuits regarding the injuries of the minors attending junior high school/high school that were hurt in school accidents. Oftentimes their intention is to make school or state take responsibility. It is argued that their purpose of bringing lawsuits against school or state is simply to gain financial benefits. While such statement might be true, it is the fundamental right for the people to seek help from the court and the government cannot refuse their plea. This research aims to show another way of thinking about such argument between students and schools based on the constitutional view. It should be noted, however, that school accidents are often extremely complicated and cannot be analyzed easily. For example, based on what standard did the judge make the ruling on whether the defendant have committed a crime of negligence? Has the plaintiff being provided with the resources he/she needs or wants based on the discretionary powers without any defects? In order to bring justice for all parties involved in school accidents, it is crucial to seek for satisfying answers to these questions. In view of the huge influence of the Japanese law to Taiwan and the similarities of the legal thinking behind the school accident lawsuits shared by the two nations, this study aims to provide a legal solution for school accident disputes in Taiwan by referring to the case law precedents of school accidents in Japan. In conclusion, it is suggested that-based on the theory of Restorative Justice-it is important to fix the relationship between the victim and those who live in the same circle-sometimes even include the defendant. It should also be noted that a draft named the School Accident Compensation Law has been proposed by the Japan Education Law Association during the 1970's. By reviewing the content of the said draft and other related studies, it is possible to discover a guideline for helping the school accident victims.
    Relation: 法學評論, 148, 69-111
    Data Type: article
    DOI 連結: https://doi.org/ 10.3966/102398202017030148002
    DOI: 10.3966/102398202017030148002
    Appears in Collections:[法學評論 TSSCI] 期刊論文

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