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    Title: 從輕聲與韻律外現象看漢語方言中虛化的功能詞
    Grammaticalized function words in Chinese dialects: neutral tone and prosodic invisibility
    Authors: 黃子權
    Huang, Tzu-Chuan
    Contributors: 蕭宇超
    Hsiao, Yu-Chau
    黃子權
    Huang, Tzu-Chuan
    Keywords: 虛詞
    韻律
    語法化
    音韻與句法的界面
    syntax-phonology interface
    grammaticalization
    prosodization
    Date: 2020
    Issue Date: 2020-09-02 11:35:12 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本研究從輕聲與韻律外現象探討漢語方言中功能詞的韻律。輕聲係指完全失去音位對立的聲調形式,韻律外現象則指聲調不受制於一般變調規律的特殊情形。這兩個現象都出現於韻律上無法獨立成詞的韻律附著詞,而韻律附著詞又與實義詞與功能詞的普遍分類有關。實義詞在韻律上通常可以獨立成詞,功能詞則有許多可能,或獨立成詞,或成為各種韻律附著詞。本論文的調查也發現,漢語方言中的功能詞可分成兩類,一類具有韻律顯著性,於韻律上的表現與實義詞相似,另一類則不具有顯著性,因此容易發生輕聲或韻律外現象。本論文的主要目標便是從理論音韻學的角度,探究功能詞這兩種韻律上的分類有何特性。針對這個問題,文獻中通常是採用基於構詞與句法結構的界面制約,這個方法係假設不同的韻律形式直接產生自不同的構詞或句法結構,然而在我所研究的漢語方言中卻發現韻律形式與構詞或句法結構之間並無如此直接的連結。透過對五個漢語方言各類功能詞韻律行為的分析與觀察,本研究提出新的觀點,認為介面制約不只是與構詞或句法結構有關,更與該詞語法化的程度有關。這個觀點是基於語法化研究中一個普遍被接受的概念,即語法化程度與語音形式的弱化正相關,換言之,一個功能詞語法化程度越深,它在韻律形式上也越趨弱化,失去足以獨立成詞的顯著性。本研究將這樣的概念予以形式化,以優選理論的框架提出相關的介面制約,為相關領域的研究提供了一個語義、句法、韻律三者間互有關聯的理論機制。
    This dissertation concerns the prosodization of function words in Chinese dialects in terms of neutral tone and prosodic invisibility. Neutral tone refers to the pitch pattern derived by complete loss of original lexical contrast; prosodic invisibility describes a phenomenon where a tone is extraprosodic and thus is excluded from some general tonal process. Both phenomena are considered derived from the status of prosodic clitic, meaning independent syntactic words that are not prosodized as independent prosodic words, and the occurrence of such prosodic clitics is subject to a universal distinction between lexical words and function words. Words of lexical categories strongly correlate with prosodic word status, whereas words of functional categories correspond to more than one prosodic type, ranging from independent prosodic word to free prosodic clitic, and therefore members of functional categories may diverge from one another in whether to perform neutral tone and/or prosodic invisibility. Two prosodic classes are found in the current survey, termed prominent function words on the one hand, and non-prominent function words on the other. Members of the former class exhibit a similar prosodization to lexical word while the class of non-prominent function words is vulnerable to the neutral tone process and prosodic invisibility. The central problem to be addressed in this dissertation is the formal characterization of prosodic distinctions between these subclasses within functional categories. The conventional response to this problem is to take an interface constraint approach grounded by morphosyntax, which assumes that different prosodizations of functional elements directly follow from differences in their morphosyntactic properties and language-specific constraint rankings. However, this straightforward correlation does not uniformly hold in the case that serves as a basis of the dissertation, the neutral tone and prosodic invisibility of Chinese dialects, where function words exhibit a considerable overlap in their morphosyntactic distributions that precludes any differentiation rooted in morphosyntax. This dissertation, though employing a set of interface constraints too, proposes that the ranked interface constraints are grounded by not only morphosyntactic properties but semantic/pragmatic information. By taking an overall look at various types of function words which have potential to perform neutral tones and/or prosodic invisibility, I conclude that the distinction between prominent and non-prominent classes of function words can be drawn along the scale of grammaticalization. The idea is based on the general conception in the literature of grammaticalization that phonological erosion and semantic bleaching usually come hand in hand. As a function word becomes more semantically bleached during the course of grammaticalization, it is more likely to be non-prominent, or weak, to license certain constituents in the prosodic structure. By encoding this information of grammaticalization in the interface constraint, this dissertation offers a formalized mechanism to make use of both morphosyntactic properties and information from semantics-syntax interface. This approach thus leads to a unified account of prosodic distinction between subclasses within functional categories.
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    Description: 博士
    國立政治大學
    語言學研究所
    100555503
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0100555503
    Data Type: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/NCCU202001638
    Appears in Collections:[語言學研究所] 學位論文

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