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Title:  具關鍵字搜尋之公開金鑰認證加密：新型框架及抗量子實例化 Publickey Authenticated Encryption with Keyword Search: Novel Frameworks and Quantumresistant Instantiations 
Authors:  劉子源 Liu, ZiYuan 
Contributors:  左瑞麟 Tso, RayLin 劉子源 Liu, ZiYuan 
Keywords:  新型框架 抗量子密碼 關鍵字搜尋 基於身分加密 通用架構 公開金鑰認證加密 Novel frameworks Quantumresistant cryptosystems Keyword search Identitybased encryption Generic construction Publickey authenticated encryption 
Date:  2023 
Issue Date:  20231201 10:33:07 (UTC+8) 
Abstract:  隨著雲端服務的應用不斷地發展，愈來愈多使用者能夠透過這些應用便利及彈性地使用其珍貴的數位資料。為了避免敏感資料外洩，資料擁有者需在上傳資料至雲端前將其進行加密。然而，經加密後的資料便喪失了被搜尋的功能。具關鍵字搜尋之公開金鑰加密提供了解決辦法，但現有的架構大多無法抵擋來自內部攻擊者的關鍵字猜測攻擊。其原因在於惡意內部者可以獲取資料接收者傳送的搜尋請求，他可以任意測試他所生成的可搜尋密文，以竊取與搜尋請求相關的關鍵字資訊。為了避免此安全問題，具關鍵字搜尋之公開金鑰認證加密被提出，在此架構中，搜尋請求只對於特定的資料擁有者所產生的可搜尋密文有其效用，避免內部攻擊者能自行產生可搜尋密文來進行攻擊。
本文深入探討具關鍵字搜尋之公開金鑰認證加密的兩個議題。首先，雖然許多具關鍵字搜尋之公開金鑰認證加密架構已經被提出，例如基於公鑰、身份、無憑證及憑證架構，但仍然無一架構能在安全、效率及便利上取得平衡。為了解決這個議題，本論文提出一新型框架——身分認證機構協助之基於身分之搜尋加密框架，與先前架構相比，此框架中的使用者可透過身分來代替需憑證認證之公鑰，以達到使用上的便利性，同時藉由身分認證機構協助，來避免基於身分架構常見之金鑰託管問題，此外，此框架更結合具關鍵字搜尋之公開金鑰認證加密的概念，以避免關鍵字猜測攻擊，以達到安全、效率及便利上之平衡。其次，由於現有架構之安全性皆基於離散對數難問題，並且Shor於1994年已提出一量子演算法能於多項式時間內破解離散對數難問題，因此，隨著量子電腦逐漸發展成熟，構造出能抵擋量子攻擊之具關鍵字搜尋之公開金鑰認證加密成為重要之議題。為了達到這個目標，本論文首先提出一需可信賴方協助之具關鍵字搜尋之公開金鑰認證加密之通用架構，透過可信賴方協助，使得資料擁有者及接收者能獲得一共享秘密，而資料接收者產生之搜尋要求只對擁有此共享秘密之資料擁有者有效用，以避免關鍵字猜測攻擊。在此通用架構的概念下，此論文進一步移除可信賴方協助之需求，提出一具關鍵字搜尋之公開金鑰認證加密之通用架構。透過此通用架構，此論文採用基於晶格之元件，提出第一個可抗量子攻擊之具關鍵字搜尋之公開金鑰認證加密。 As cloud service applications continue to develop, an increasing number of users are able to conveniently and flexibly utilize their valuable digital data through these applications. To prevent sensitive data leakage, the data sender must encrypt their data before uploading them to the cloud. However, after the data is encrypted, they cannot be searched. Public key encryption with keyword search (PEKS) provides a solution to this problem. However, most existing PEKS schemes are vulnerable to keyword guessing attacks (KGA) from internal adversaries. Because a malicious insider can obtain search requests sent by the data receiver, it can test any searchable ciphertext it has generated to steal keyword information related to search requests and encrypted data. To avoid this security loophole, public key authenticated encryption with keyword search (PAEKS) was proposed. Unlike PEKS, search requests in PAEKS are only valid for the searchable ciphertext generated by a specific data sender; therefore, PAEKS can prevent internal adversaries from adaptively generating searchable ciphertexts to attack.
This dissertation provides an indepth discussion of two issues related to PAEKS. First, although many PAEKS schemes have been proposed, such as publickeybased, identitybased, certificateless, and certificatebased schemes, no related scheme can balance between security, efficiency, and convenience. To solve this problem, this dissertation proposes a new framework: identitycertifying authorityaided identitybased searchable encryption. The proposed framework differs from others in that users can use their identity as a public key instead of using a public key that requires certificate authentication. In addition, with the help of an identitycertifying authority, this framework solves key escrow problems. Furthermore, this framework also incorporates the concept of PAEKS to prevent KGA from striking a good balance between security, efficiency, and convenience. Second, the security of current PAEKS schemes is based on the discrete logarithm problem. As demonstrated by Shor in 1994, a quantum algorithm can solve the discrete logarithm problem in polynomial time. The technology behind quantum computers has gradually matured; consequently, constructing a PAEKS scheme that can withstand quantum attacks has become an important goal. To achieve this, a generic trusted authorityaided PAEKS construction is proposed in this dissertation. In this construction, with the assistance of a trusted authority, the data sender and data receiver can obtain a shared secret, and the search request generated by the data receiver is only valid for the searchable ciphertext generated by the data sender; this prevents keyword guessing attacks. On the basis of this idea, a generic PAEKS construction without the need for a trusted authority is further proposed. Therefore, the first quantumresistant PAEKS scheme can be instantiated through latticebased building blocks. 
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