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Mandarin-speaking Children's Use of Discourse Markers Hao 'Okay' and Dui 'Right' in Peer Interaction
Huang, Chiung Chih
|Issue Date: ||2013-05-01 11:46:49 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract: ||本研究使用Schiffrin (1987) 提出的言談結構（discourse structure）為分析架構，旨在觀察漢語兒童在同儕互動中使用口語中常出現的言談標記「好」和「對」的情形，藉以檢驗其如何反映漢語兒童的溝通技巧以及同儕互動的特性。研究語料來自六位五歲的漢語兒童兩兩之間互動的對話，共237分鐘。|
研究發現五歲漢語兒童能掌握言談標記「好」和「對」在三個言談結構的功能，且他們使用此兩個言談標記的不同功能時有所異同。首先，「好」和「對」主要使用於交談順序結構（exchange structure）作為表同意的標記。雖然在成人對話中「好」和「對」皆可用於交談順序結構及語意結構（ideational structure），作為表知曉（acknowledgement）的反饋應答標記和話題轉換（topic transition）標記，但研究結果發現漢語兒童在交談順序結構中只使用「好」作為表知曉的反饋應答標記；在語意結構只用「對」作為話題轉換標記。研究結果顯示五歲漢語兒童在與同儕互動時，已能夠使用反饋標記「好」表現參與對方話題的意願，而他們不使用「對」則可能與「對」作為反饋應答標記時的用法和應答詞（backchannels）相似有關。根據先前研究指出應答詞屬於兒童較晚才習得的溝通技巧（Hess & Johnston, 1988）。此外，五歲漢語兒童亦展現出使用話題轉換標記「對」的能力，顯示他們已知道如何使用言談標記幫助建構言談連貫性（discourse coherence）；而他們選擇使用「對」而非「好」來轉換話題，則可能與「好」的此項功能所隱含的發話者權威性有關（Chen & Liu, 2009），若使用這類帶有發話者權威的言談標記，則可能損害其與同儕間的關係。本研究因而推論漢語兒童在同儕互動中言談標記「好」和「對」各種功能的使用，不僅僅顯示出他們的溝通技巧，同時也反映了同儕互動的特性。
The thesis aims to investigate Mandarin-speaking children’s use of two frequently appearing discourse markers, hao ‘okay’ and dui ‘right’, when interacting with peers in order to examine how their use of these markers may reflect their communicative skills and the characteristics of peer relation. The data included 237 minutes of 5-year-old Mandarin children’s conversations with friends while playing. Schiffrin’s (1987) model of discourse structures, which includes the exchange structure, the action structure, the ideational structures, the participation frameworks, and the information state, was used for the analysis.
The results showed that Mandarin-speaking children used hao in the information state, the exchange structure and the action structure while dui in the information state, the exchange structure and the ideational structure. The functions of hao and dui in the present data demonstrated several similarities and differences. Both markers were used by the children in the exchange structure to show the speaker’s agreement. However, only hao functioned as an acknowledgement marker to indicate the receipt of information in the exchange structure while only dui marking topic transitions in the ideational structure, even though both markers can serve these two functions in adult conversation. Mandarin-speaking children’s use of hao and dui to express agreements, which indicates their collaborative stances, may help them establish alliances with each other (Wang et al., 2010). Moreover, Mandarin-speaking children at age five demonstrated their ability to use hao as an acknowledgement marker to show their intention to participate in their peer’s current talk. In addition, that only hao but not dui served as an acknowledgement marker may result from the similarity between the acknowledging function of dui and that of backchannels, which has been considered among the last acquired communicative skills (Hess & Johnston, 1988). Furthermore, Mandarin 5-year-old children had the ability to use dui as a topic transition marker to establish discourse coherence. Meanwhile, that dui, instead of hao, was chosen by the children as a transition marker may reflect the relatively equal relations between peers, since hao is usually used by a speaker with higher status to control the topics in adult conversation (Chen & Liu, 2009). It is concluded that Mandarin children’s use of the two markers not only demonstrates their communicative skills but also reflects the particular nature of peer interaction.
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|Source URI: ||http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0098555005|
|Data Type: ||thesis|
|Appears in Collections:||[語言學研究所] 學位論文|
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