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    Title: 新瓶舊酒:中國文化與中共政權正當性之研究
    Old Wine in a New Bottle? The Role of Confucianism in the Legitimacy Strategy of the Chinese Communist Party
    Authors: 范德銘
    Alexander van der Meer
    Contributors: 趙建民
    Chao, Chien Min
    范德銘
    Alexander van der Meer
    Keywords: 儒家
    中國共產黨
    正當性
    中國文化
    Confucianism
    Chinese Communist Party
    Political Legitimacy
    Chinese Culture
    Date: 2013
    Issue Date: 2014-10-01 13:43:19 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 數十年來,中國共產黨對於儒家主義的文化價值產生巨變。不似四十年前的革命,當時共產黨欲拔除儒道深植的價值,孔夫子成為國家反革命的代表形象。相反的,近年來黨內開始重塑孔夫子的地位,藉由每年慶祝孔子誕辰,立孔子像以彰顯他的貢獻,塑造成中國偉大的聖人。這大膽假設過去以馬克思主義的基本意識形態可能在改變,產生共鳴的對象從馬克思主義蛻變成儒家主義。另外一說:中國共產黨意圖採用普世的儒家價值來合理化其作為。因此我們應如何看待這個黨與過去其眼中的「魔」共舞?黨對於儒家主義的真正意圖為合?本文研究重點將解釋以上問題。
    首先,本文將透過理論去探討儒家主義如何合理化政治行為。接著將透過重要的歷史背景因素證明一開始的中國共產黨對儒家主義的深惡痛絕。其後將透過第一手的文件和歷史文獻佐證在1980年代儒家主義復甦以後,黨轉變為尋找與大眾價值的共識──與儒家主義共存的立場。儒家主義的再次興起帶來了民族尊嚴,進而使黨更容易透過國家主義統一整個國家。另一方面,中國共產黨也試著傳播精心塑造的儒家主義,去蕪存菁的挑選出最利於黨的儒家元素架構。後段將提到中國共產黨如何選擇性的篩選儒家主義元素來支持獨裁統治,向國際營造中國穩定社會的形象;而非摒棄過去基本意識形態──馬克思主義卻選擇西化。最後駁斥某些立場:如中國共產黨正準備脫離現下的基本意識進而靠攏儒家主義。
    因此,儘管過去中國共產黨批評儒家主義是製造階級化的淵藪,但現在卻一步步採用同樣思想,合理化獨裁統治。這種五十步笑百步的行為,挑選了利於黨的儒家元素,將存在中國兩千年的儒家主義的這甕舊酒,裝到中國共產黨統治下的這個新瓶裡。
    Over the last few decades, the Chinese Communist Party’s attitude towards the most profound determinant of the traditional Chinese culture – Confucianism – changed significantly. Not even 40 years ago, Confucius was represented as an anti-revolutionary enemy of the state, while the party tried to root out every sprout of Confucianism amongst the population. Contrarily, nowadays, the party seems to have re-instated Confucius to the position of ‘great Chinese sage’, for which it organizes his annual birthday parties, raises statues for him and praises his contributions to humanity. This leads some observers to the bold conclusion that the party might even be prepared to change its ideological basis from Marxism – which lost its resonance amongst the population anyways – to Confucianism. Others disagree, and argue that the party is just widening its legitimacy basis in a populist way by using all kinds of means, amongst which Confucianism. Thus, how should we assess the party’s dance with the former devil? What is actually the party’s plan with Confucianism? Giving an answer to the latter question is the main purpose of this research.
    First of all, as most authors relate this phenomenon to the party’s quest for political legitimacy, a basic theoretical overview will be given, showing possible causality between Confucianism and political legitimacy. Secondly, the most essential historical background will be provided in order to explain why the party was initially so malicious towards Confucianism. Subsequently, based on literature, and based on an analysis of primary sources, it will be argued that the party, after witnessing a popular revival of Confucianism in the 1980s, on the one hand sought consensus with the population by co-opting this revival – a revival which led to national pride, enabling the party to capitalize on its nationalist legacy as unifier of the country – while it on the other hand tried to channel this development into a meticulously constructed form of Confucianism – by selecting some elements and discarding others – that would benefit the party. The latter refers to a fragmented version of Confucianism which supports authoritarian rule, enhances social stability, shows a gentler face of China to the outside world, presents an attractive cultural alternative to Westernization, but - most importantly - doesn’t present an ideological alternative to Marxism. The latter refutes the claim that the CCP is preparing to depart from its current ideological base towards Confucianism.
    Concluding, despite the fact that the party previously vigorously blamed Confucianism for having facilitated the subjugation of the population, it now more or less uses Confucianism in a similar manner. The pot seems to have called the kettle black. Therefore, the role of Confucianism in the CCP’s legitimacy strategy is old wine – symbolizing the way in which dynastical China has used a selection of Confucian teachings to enhance its authoritarian rule for two millennia – in a new socialist bottle.
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    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    亞太研究英語碩士學位學程(IMAS)
    101926022
    102
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G1019260221
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[亞太研究英語博/碩士學位學程(IDAS/IMAS) ] 學位論文

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