戰後擺脫日本殖民當局的箝制，揮別皇民文學的陰影，台灣新文學運動重新出發。在未來發展路線抉擇的關鍵時刻，日治時期文學遺產無可避免地面臨總清算的命運。賴和因為在文學界崇高的地位與抵抗日本殖民統治的經歷，得以在中華民族主義普遍瀰漫之際迅速被召喚出土，曾經中斷的批判性現實主義文學傳統也得到重新發展的契機。本文主要藉由戰後初期楊逵的文學活動，從楊逵介紹日治時期作家林幼春、賴和的文學地位與成就，繼之以魯迅文學比擬兩人的文學精神，以及楊逵提攜台灣本地新秀進軍文壇，指導青年文學團體銀鈴會成員等各層面，探討楊逵如何承先與啟後，建構戰後初期台灣本土文學系譜。筆者並將進一步說明，在戰後中國政府亟欲將台灣全盤中國化之際，楊逵傳承日治時期反殖民的台灣文學，不僅寄寓批判當前社會現實的抗爭性意義，更突顯了楊逵的台灣認同與台灣文學的自主性格。 After the war, free from Japanese colonial rule, and coming out from under the shadow of the Komin literary, Taiwan’s Neo-Literary movement began again. This was a crucial moment for which route the development of Taiwanese literature would take so it was unavoidable that the remnants of the literary tradition under Japanese rule were destined to be purged. Due to his lofty status in literary circles and because of his resistance to Japan’s colonial rule, Lai He’s writings were quickly reintroduced when the Chinese Nationalists took control of Taiwan. The Critical Realistic literary tradition that had been cut off under Japanese rule began to develop once again. This essay, based upon Yang Kui’s literary activities in the initial stages of post-war Taiwan, explores how Yang Kui continued the process of inheriting past literary traditions and passing them on to the next generation of authors in the building and constructing of Taiwan’s Native literary movement. Yang Kui’s introduction into this process of passing down tradition was through the writers Lin You-Chun and Lai He. Their literary status and achievements were equivalent to Lu Xun and his literary spirit, to which Yang Kui made comparisons with the style and spirit of their writing. Yang Kui continued this process of entrance into the Taiwanese literary world through his guidance, support, and promotion of young up-and-coming Taiwanese authors. He was even involved in encouraging and instructing the members of the youth literary group, The Silver Bell Club. I will further show that in post-war Taiwan the Chinese government planned to totally supplant Taiwanese culture with Chinese culture. Yang Kui’s passing on of anti-colonialist literature from the time of Japanese rule not only had meaning for that time, but also spoke to the struggle in Taiwan during the early post war years, and demonstrates his personal identification with Taiwan and the independent character of Taiwanese literature.