受到新公共管理思潮的影響，英國的公共服務從早期著重於由地方政府內部直接提供，走向與民營化結合的強制性競標，再邁向晚近的最佳價值體制。公共服務從內部供給走向契約外包的強制性競標，是欲解決科層體制之無效率、無彈性及昂貴的服務輸送；但強制性競標昂貴的交易成本、競爭市場的不足、員工士氣的低落……等，不僅不利於效率的改善，也傷害到公共服務品質。最佳價值融合新公共管理和社區與地方治理的理念，其重視社區參與、培植使能政府、建構社區伙伴關係以及全機構觀點的統整運作模式，將公共服務的供給從強制性競標的交易契約模式轉向最佳價值的關係契約。公共服務的改革將是一條永無止境的路，最佳價值體制已對公共服務績效與品質的提昇產生正面的效益，但同時卻也面臨不少的兩難與挑戰，政策上能否適切地因應並突破其所面臨的困境，將是最佳價值體制能否成功的重要關鍵。 In Britain, the public services have been shifted from mainly in-house provision by local governments to a way of contracting out through Compulsory Competitive Tendering (CCT) regime under the influence of ideas of New Public Management (NPM) and privatization, and further towards Best Value regime recently. The shifting from in-house provision to CCT was intended to solve the problems of inefficiency, inflexibility and high-cost of public service provision. However, the reform did not improve the inefficiency as expected but damaged the service quality as a result of its high transactional cost, insufficient market competition, low-morale staffs, and et cetera. The Best Value regime which combines ideas of the NPM and the Community and Local Government Movement (CLGM) emphasizes to initiate a corporate model by enhancing community participation, building up enabling local governments, creating community partnership and formulating whole authority approach, and to move public service provisions from transactional contracting of the CCT to relational contracting of the Best Value. The Best Value regime has created some positive effects on promoting public service performance and quality, but also faced many dilemmas and difficulties. Whether the reform is able to reach its goals or not, appropriate policies for these dilemmas will be key elements.
公共行政學報, 15,131-164 Journal of Public Administration National Chengchi University