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    Title: 從「實驗田」到「遍地開花」:中國開發區制度傳散的社會學新制度論分析
    Authors: 陳明祺
    Keywords: 開發區;制度傳散;新制度論;政治社會正當性;認知正當性
    development zone;institutional diffusion;sociological neo-institutionalism;socio-political legitimacy;cognitive legitimacy
    Date: 2013-12
    Issue Date: 2016-07-25 13:48:11 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 改革開放以來,闢建開發區招商引資在中國逐漸制度化成為主流地方發展策略,一方面帶動了快速的經濟成長,但同時也因為大規模圈地拆遷,造成不少失地農民與對抗衝突的事件。此一主題雖然重要,但關於開發區做為一種地方經濟發展的制度的研究卻是不多,既有的研究主要從政治經濟學的觀點出發,分析開發區從少數人探索採行的「實驗田」到各地不顧本身條件紛紛仿效而造成的制度擴散的過程,兩個主要觀點分別強調地方之間的競爭和地方官員因為對上級審批的預期而採行相關行動。「地方競爭論」和「分段解除管制論」各著重水平的「地方─地方」和垂直的「中央─地方」兩條分析軸線之一,對於開發區制度傳散的起伏也未能提供全面的解釋。本文採取社會學新制度論的觀點,以「正當性」為核心概念分析開發區做為一種制度在中國傳散的過程。本文追溯開發區制度的演進過程,提出相關數據資料分析,並以蘇南開發區群為例來說明「社會政治正當性」和「認知正當性」各自的效果以及其交互作用如何塑造開發區制度擴散的動態。
    Ever since the beginning of the reform era, building development zones to attract foreign capital has gradually institutionalized and become the mainstream strategic choice for many localities in China. This strategy has propelled China’s fast economic growth, one the one hand. On the other hand, out of the hunger to develop these zones, Chinese local governments have requisitioned the farm lands and dispossessed the farmers, which led to many protests and social disturbance. Existing analyses mostly examine the diffusion of development models from the perspectives of political economics. The “local competition” model argues that it is the competition among localities that lead to the “zone fever”, while the “segmented deregulation” framework stresses that local governments saw zone building as a critical strategy to internationalize their local economies in anticipating approvals from their superiors in the provincial governments. Both views explain only parts of the social process of institutional diffusion. This paper employs the sociological neo-institutionalism and analyzes the zone fever resulting from institutional diffusion of development zones in China. The legitimacy of the development zone plays a key role in this diffusion process. This paper distinguishes between cognitive and sociopolitical legitimacy – two distinct yet intertwined sources of institutionalization. These arguments are empirically tested by using quantitative as well as qualitative methods. Research found that new institutional sociological perspective gains more support than the other two.
    Relation: 中國大陸研究, 56(4), 1-36
    Data Type: article
    Appears in Collections:[中國大陸研究 TSSCI] 期刊論文

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