馬克思主義在過去的一百多年裡，曾經對世界產生過巨大的影響。從外部觀察馬克思主義的新聞理論（指對於媒介性質與作用的基本認識），往往只看到一種固定的模式。事實上，它經歷了不同的發展階段，不同的部分可能比相同的部分還要多些。本文作者認為，馬克思和恩格斯作為馬克思主義的創始人，其新聞理論呈開放的態勢，是有理性的。列寧作為一個具有民主意識的政治家，曾經努力在俄國社會民主工黨內建立具有理性的黨報體制，但是他受到環境和俄國傳統的影響，有時卻作出了與他的理想相反的論證或行動。而斯大林則繼承了列寧理論上的一些缺陷，造成蘇聯新聞事業的僵化。中國共產黨的新聞理論雖然形式上受到蘇聯黨影響，但是主要還是自身環境和中國文化傳統的產物。它曾經為黨的新聞事業的發展壯大立下了汗馬功勞，因而不同時期的領導人都沿用既定的新聞理論，目前的問題是如何適應以經濟建設為中心的新形勢，使理論具有靈活性。 Marxism has exerted a great deal of influence on the world for a century. If we look only at its surface, we see Marxism as a static model of knowledge and ignore the fact that it has been undergoing developments during different periods of time. This paper discusses Marx's and Engel's idea of the role of the press in society. Their theories of journalism, contrary to what has been said in some parts of the world, are open and rational. Lenin, as a politician who has a democratic awareness, tried to establish a rational system for party newspapers in the Russian Socialist Democratic Worker Party but fell short of it. Afterward Stalin continued and kept Lenin's shortcomings and brought in a rigid way of journalism practices in the Soviet Union. Though journalism theories of the Communist Party of China were affected by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, they are somehow based on the circumstances and tradition of the Chinese culture. Journalism is seen as a positive and important tool in societal development, and journalism theories are used by all party leaders in rather different ways. At present, the important problem is: how journalism in China can adopt itself to serve the booming economics in a more flexible way.