The study mainly examined the characteristics of the referencing behavior in designers' ideation. Especially, designers' searching behavior and retrieving behavior, and the interactive and connective relationship between the two referencing methods and other behaviors were described. Ten practicing graphic designers were observed while they completed assigned tasks. The study identified specific features of ideation in the designers stimulated by printed and online materials. Two distinct methods were used by the designers in developing ideas based on the process they used to transform their ideas. Based on considering the keyword-based information retrieving behavior, a "thinkingseeing-moving" structure was proposed in the study to describe designers' ideation pattern in the digital environment. The study also highlights the importance of a mechanism supporting designers' ideation that includes words and images.
Bulletin of Japanese Society for the Science of Design, Vol.62, No.3, pp.pp. 85-94