本研究主要探討校長學習領導、教師專業學習社群與學生學習表現之間的關係，以全國國中教師抽樣進行問卷調查。為避免產生層次推論謬誤之情形，本研究採用多層次結構方程式模型（multilevel structural equation modeling, MSEM）進行分析。依據分析結果歸納以下結論：一、國中校長學習領導在個人與學校層次都顯著正向高度直接影響教師專業學習社群。二、國中教師專業學習社群僅在個人層次顯著正向中高度直接影響學生學習表現。三、國中校長學習領導在個人層次顯著正向中度直接影響學生學習表現，學校層次則為高度影響。四、國中校長學習領導僅在個人層次透過教師專業學習社群對學生學習表現產生顯著正向中度的中介影響效果。五、在背景變項部分，教師是否具有專業學習社群經驗乃是對於校長學習領導、教師專業學習社群與學生學習表現之最為顯著之影響因素。最後，根據研究結論提出相關建議。 The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among principal learning leadership, teacher professional learning community and student learning performance of junior high schools in Taiwan. A sample of 645 junior high school teachers completed questionnaires to measure major variables followed by data analysis using multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM). Major findings of this study included: (1) Principal learning leadership had highly positive and direct effect on teacher professional learning community at the individual and school level. (2) Teacher professional learning community had moderately positive and direct effect on student learning performance at the individual level. (3) Principal learning leadership had moderately positive and direct effect on student learning performance at the individual level, but highly at the school level. (4) Principal learning leadership, tested by the mediated-effects model, had moderately indirect effects on student learning performance mediated by teacher professional learning community of junior high schools at the individual level. (5) Among the background variables, teachers’ participation of the professional learning was the most influential factor on principal learning leadership, teacher professional learning community, and student learning performance. Based on the major findings, the study offered several recommendations for future researchers and school administrators.