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    Title: 好奇、焦慮與因應效能對探索行為的影響效果
    The Effects of Curiosity, Anxiety, and Coping Efficacy on the Exploratory Behavior
    Authors: 何文澤
    葉光輝
    Contributors: 教育與心理研究
    Keywords: 因應效能、好奇心、探索行為、焦慮感、學習動機
    Date: 2018-06
    Issue Date: 2019-11-13 16:14:01 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 好奇心一向被認為是人類探索未知的驅力,Spielberger與Starr(1994)提出探索行為雙歷程理論(dual process theory of exploratory behavior),主張新奇事物會引發個體的好奇心,驅使其探索該刺激,但也可能引發個體的焦慮感,迫使其遠離該刺激。兩者的作用效果相互拮抗,共同決定個體是否持續探索該刺激。然而,過去研究並未直接驗證此理論觀點,本研究設計了實驗直接檢證之,並納入社會認知理論的自我效能觀點,操弄參與者對新奇事物的因應效能,影響個體的焦慮感。參與者共86位,隨機分派至實驗組或控制組。參與者需對未知的抽象畫評定好奇程度、焦慮程度與探索意願。結果顯示:對畫作的好奇度與焦慮度能共同預測個體探索意願的高低,支持了雙歷程理論。另外,比起因應效能較低的畫,個體對因應效能較高的畫作較不焦慮,亦更願意探索,但好奇度則無變化,代表因應效能會影響個體的焦慮感。未來可將研究結果應用在教育課程設計上,結合學習動機理論,測量學生的好奇與焦慮傾向,識別容易不想探索新課程的學生與背後的原因。另一方面,創新的課程或教學方式對高焦慮的學生不一定有幫助。若學生的因應效能較低,創新課程與教法會讓學生過度焦慮,裹足不前。
    Curiosity is the drive to unknown. Spielberger and Starr (1994) proposed the dual process theory of exploratory behavior, indicating that novel stimuli triggered one’s curiosity to explore it, and triggered one’s anxiety to avoid it. They co-determined the duration and intensity of exploratory behavior. However, no any past study directly validated the theory. This study not only tested this theory but also integrated the perspective of social cognition theory, introducing coping efficacy to the framework. Manipulated coping efficacy of novel stimuli would influence one’s anxiety and then his exploratory behavior. Eighty-six participants were randomly assigned to two experiment groups and a control group. Facing two titles of abstract paintings, participants reported their degree of curiosity, anxiety, and the willingness to explore them. Results showed that the combination of curiosity and anxiety of paintings predicted the willingness to explore paintings, supporting the dual process theory. In experiment groups, participants felt less anxious toward and more willing to explore the higher coping efficacy painting than the lower one, indicating the theoretical importance of coping efficacy in the context of learning motivation. There are potential applications of the results in curriculum design. Measuring students’ deposition of curiosity and anxiety would indicate students that easily withdraw from learning and the reason behind their withdrawal. Moreover, innovative learning material might backfire on high anxious students, making them more anxious.
    Relation: 教育與心理研究, 41(2), 59-80
    Data Type: article
    Appears in Collections:[教育與心理研究 TSSCI] 期刊論文

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