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    Title: 五味雜陳的《犀牛》
    Other Titles: Rhinoceros
    Authors: 阮若缺
    Keywords: 犀牛;奇幻劇;鬧劇;荒謬劇;悲劇;Rhinoceros;Fantastic Play;Farce;Tragedy;Absurd Play
    Date: 2008-03
    Issue Date: 2009-01-13 15:41:08 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 乍聽《犀牛》劇情它像齣奇幻劇;在第一幕僅聽說小鎮出現兩隻犀牛,到了第二幕,據悉已增至七頭,接著得知有人變成犀牛,結果已不是風聞而爾,不但周遭的鄰居、朋友、升斗小民變為犀牛,地方有頭有臉的人物也成了犀牛!原先刺耳、沙啞的動物嘶吼聲,現在大家認為是迷人的天籟!但這神奇的夢幻場景背後,卻隱藏了一種人類無法承受之重;它意味著由於人們的鄉愿、妥協、讓步,而走向滅絕之路。事實上,作者在劇中巧妙地令劇中人不斷重複一些無聊可笑的話語,顛三倒四地談論事物還自以為是,有時甚至自相矛盾,這些荒誕滑稽的行徑更凸顯人類的渺小與無知,在觀眾訕笑之際,尤涅斯可又將大家帶到另一個境界:原來人們根本無法掌握自己的前途,不由自主地步入敗亡,這似乎是人類的唯一宿命。因此,這更是齣荒謬劇和殘酷的寫實劇:理想只是個騙人的玩意兒,當友情令人失望,愛情褪去光彩時,還不是孑然一身,最後只落得讓死亡恥笑人類的期待和蠢動……。舞台上的亂象確實震撼人心,並發人深省,它直指人類在巨變中,盲信躁進或故步自封都可能造成不幸的後果。尤涅斯可有自己的看法,但他並未預設立場,在劇中,他同樣譏諷墨守成規、不知變通的人,認為反潮流與同流合污者一樣荒謬;這齣劇就如同一刀兩刃、左劈同流,右砍反抗勢力,作者試圖在其中殺出另一條道路,讓觀眾自己去做抉擇。
    At the first glance, the story of Rhinoceros looks like a fantasy. We hear about two rhinoceros appear in the small town in the first scene and seven rhinoceros show up in the second scene, then somebody becomes a rhinoceros. And it does not stay merely as a rumor. Everyone nearby, including neighbors, friends, and from normal people to respected celebrities, all becomes rhinoceros; suddenly, harsh and raucous howl is considered fascinating melody. However, behind the fantastic scenes hides an unbearable human burden indicating that people's hypocrisy, compromising, and concession lead to the way of destruction. In fact, the author skillfully makes the characters repeat their ridiculous nonsense, talk in disorder, and still consider them self-righteous while often contradictory. Their absurd behavior shows human's insignificance and ignorance. While laughing, the audience is brought by Ionesco to another confine: human beings can not control their future; they step into failure and death involuntarily, and it seems that it is their only destiny. Accordingly, this is more of an absurd play or a play of cruel realism: ideals are only a lie: when friendship becomes disappointing and love fades, we are all alone letting Satan laugh at our expectation and wriggling…. Disordered scenes on the stage are shocking and also stimulate deep thoughts. In great change, human beings will suffer from unfortunate consequence by either impatient pursuit of progress or complacence and conservativeness. Ionesco has his own viewpoint but he does not make personal standpoint; in the play, he also satirizes the conservatives and considers them as foolish as anti-socialists or trend followers. This play is like a knife with two blades: one hacks the trend and the other attacks the counteraction. Ionesco merely tries to let the audience choose their own stands.
    Relation: 哲學與文化, 35(3), 77-89
    Data Type: article
    Appears in Collections:[歐洲語文學系] 期刊論文

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