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    政大機構典藏 > 文學院 > 宗教研究所 > 學位論文 >  Item 140.119/36003
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/36003


    Title: 伊斯蘭的婦女觀:傳統與現代
    The Concept of Woman in Islam
    Authors: 劉育成
    Liu Yu-cheng
    Contributors: 林長寬
    劉育成
    Liu Yu-cheng
    Keywords: 伊斯蘭
    古蘭經
    聖訓
    婦女研究
    穆斯林婦女
    穆罕默德
    女性主義
    Islam
    Quran
    Hadith
    Woman's study
    Muslim Woman
    Muhammad
    Feminism
    Date: 2002
    Issue Date: 2009-09-18 16:51:50 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 伊斯蘭世界的婦女問題在當代學術研究中佔有相當重要地位,其中一個因素乃西方的研究者不滿伊斯蘭世界對待女性的方式。自十三世紀以降,伊斯蘭世界在西方人的眼中一直是一個象徵神秘的境域,也是西方國家亟欲瞭解的地區。西方人對伊斯蘭世界探討之目的多半是希望對其進行思想與宗教文化上的侵略。穆斯林婦女蒙著面紗的景像總是不斷出現在旅行者的日記、記錄之中,而西方研究者對這些地區進行的調查亦呈現如此一般的印像,並將之視為伊斯蘭壓迫女性的例證。然而,事實是否確實如此?從其他角度觀之,伊斯蘭所欲呈現的面貌與其真實性似乎與過去西方學者所理解的面向有出入。西方思想脈絡下女性主義思想之興起與發展,或許為人類數千年來的兩性關係提供反省、思考之新方式,但是人類亦為此一思想潮流付出不少代價。性別研究的概念固然根源於西方文化的價值觀,也就是「人權」(human rights)的觀點,但是「人權」的觀點卻是人類對父權社會(Patriarchy)體制思想的一種反省。「平等」(equality)與「平權」(公平的權利,equity)並不完全相等同,女性主義者(feminists)追求的是一個「平等」的社會制度,強調的是站在相同起點的兩性觀,而伊斯蘭強調的是一種「平權」的兩性觀,主張男性與女性在此世有其各司之職務,兩性地位並不會因為此一職務性質上做作高低的區分,而導致不對等的情況出現。因此,我們可以說,這兩者之間明顯存在著本質上的差異。

    父權體制之源起與宗教信仰、思想、實踐息息相關,人類社會並非一開始即已是完全以男性為主導的社會生活形態,考古學的證據亦告訴我們,母系社會體制之存在是無庸置疑,阿拉伯世界在伊斯蘭建立之前,半島上即有些許部族實行的是以母系(Matriarchy)氏族結構為主的社會制度。就像其他的人類社會一般,在這些母系社會中,女性的確享有較多的權利以及較少的義務。不過,此一論述的標準乃是以其與父權制度的社會情況相比較而得出的結果。當個人在檢視伊斯蘭發展史之研究著作,以及對伊斯蘭經典的研讀中發現,雖然伊斯蘭世界深受許多不同的社會結構思想之背景所影響,但是從歷史的角度觀之,伊斯蘭世界的性別議題及其發展,確實有別於西方女性主義思想之論述,兩者亦不可相提並論,或是任意地以其中一方的觀點來概括另一方的思想文化。西方女性主義者的「平等觀」與伊斯蘭世界的「平權觀」二者之間的差異性,以及古蘭經呈現的觀點似乎與現實世界中穆斯林的認知、實踐有明顯的落差等現象,均是促使個人欲對此作更深入研究的動機。本論文雖旨在闡釋穆斯林的婦女觀,但是亦希望對上述二者之間的異質性作一初步論述。


    本論文第一章主要說明研究的動機與目的、研究方法、本研究之限制以及未來可能的研究方向;第二章則從伊斯蘭社會發展的背景著手,說明伊斯蘭建立之前的阿拉伯半島地區之社會結構與生活方式、信仰型態以及兩性的社會地位、互動關係等,透過婚姻制度、財產繼承、男性與女性的活動方式等面向,闡明此一時期的社會特徵,接著探討伊斯蘭建立之後,對阿拉伯半島地區的居民所作的改變,包括伊斯蘭如何看待兩性社會地位,賦予女性相關的婚姻保障、財產繼承權利、以及廢止活埋女嬰等舊慣習俗之改革,以說明伊斯蘭對待女性的方式。第三章則以古蘭經為分析的主要對象,一方面對古蘭經中關於女性的經文詳加分析,另一方面則整理了傳統宗教學者對這些經文的解讀與詮釋,除了以此作為思想上的對比之外,更希望從這些不同學派的觀點中,瞭解古蘭經詮釋之背景以及對穆斯林生活上的影響。

    第四章是以聖訓為主,首先對聖訓中關於女性之條文作一整理,並整合不同學派的分析觀點,尋求一個更為普遍合理的說明。第五章則在說明伊斯蘭現代主義思想興起的背景,在經歷中世紀的洗禮之後,伊斯蘭思想產生的重大變革,以及伊斯蘭復興所帶動的改革浪潮,不僅促使傳統的宗教學者重新思考自身的論述立場,保守主義、現代主義、伊斯蘭主義思想的興起,更是為伊斯蘭世界掀起一股更大的反省力量,保守主義者堅守伊斯蘭基本教義之信念,摒除了伊斯蘭接受現代化思想的可能性;現代主義者強調現代化之於伊斯蘭世界的重要性,甚至不惜犧牲自身的傳統文化,以配合現代化的發展進程,而伊斯蘭主義者雖然也強調伊斯蘭世界現代化的重要性,但是他們更注重伊斯蘭世界在此一現代化的過程中,應該要「伊斯蘭化」(Islamization)或是「再伊斯蘭化」(re-Islamization)。伊斯蘭主義者的理念對穆斯林而言是不難理解的,亦即,在現代化的過程中,不應當失去伊斯蘭的傳統價值與道德倫理觀,只是在實際運作的層面上,卻出現更多有待釐清的問題。在此一發展過程中,女性便成了伊斯蘭主義者訴求保存伊斯蘭傳統文化的重要角色。至此,女性議題已經不再是單純的宗教或是文化上的討論,更加入了濃厚的政治性色彩,亦使得婦女研究更為複雜。本論文亦試圖透過對比現代主義思想與古典伊斯蘭思想的內涵,指出一存在於伊斯蘭世界中難以解決的問題,亦即有關兩性地位的爭論。古蘭經與聖訓對相同議題的詮釋並非總是一致,其間已經存在許多相互矛盾之處。此外,宗教學者對經典的詮釋又有許多不同的意見與觀點,均是促成此一問題的原因,也是本論文欲處理的重點。
    The Studies of Woman in Islam is a very important part of the Islamic researches since the 15th century, whatever of the Occident or the Orient world. The major theme of the former concerned about the emancipation of women from every dimension of human life, such as workplace, rights to elections, and rights to education, etc. However, of the later, it is different from the former one; scholars of Islam primarily discussed not only the emancipation from some kind of limitation or discrimination but also the status and value both of male and female in the Islamic Ummah.
    Islam, emerged and established in the 7th century by the Prophet Muhammad, has already developed an institutional and systematic understanding of the humane world. During the one thousand and five hundred years, Islam has also merged many kinds of thoughts from different cultures into its own world. Therefore, while we start to discuss the problems of women in Islamic world, we have to take a look at the whole history of Islam first, then, we could hold a proper and just attitude to the woman in Islam.
    My thesis is concerning about the images and descriptions of Muslim Women, which were represented in the Quran, the most sacred book in Islam, and the Hadith, the sayings and behaviors of the Prophet Muhammad, recorded and edited by the Companions of the Prophet and some other religious experts after the death of Muhammad. Most important of all, I attempt to figure out what is the most initial and primordial concept of woman in Islam, and, the way how it is explained, and the process of transition and transformation of these concepts. In addition, I also examine several sorts of schools of thoughts concerning the Muslim women and Islam, including the Islamic traditionists, and modernists. Meanwhile, I juxtapose these two different sides of thought of woman and Islam, and try to give a much clearer picture of this scene between what we called conflict and convergence, whatever of peacefully or militantly. Through this mutual influence between the Quran, Hadith, Islamic traditionists and Islamic modernists, we could understand better the relationships of woman and Islam, or Islam and religion, or religion and woman, etc. Finally, I also try to point out the possibly real problems of woman issues encountered nowadays within the Islamic world.
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    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    宗教研究所
    89156003
    91
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0089156003
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[宗教研究所] 學位論文

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