|Abstract: ||讀書會(study circles)為一種志願團體，若立案為社團法人者，為非營利組織，回顧台灣讀書會自民國七十四年台北「媽媽充電會」及高雄「揚帆主婦社」成立發軔至今，隨著解嚴、社區主義及女性主義的抬頭，已有長足進展，依據民國九十年十月第五屆全國讀書會博覽會之統計，目前全國有案可稽之讀書會有1,912個。
Study Circles are voluntary groups until registered formally in which case they are called non-profit organizations. Taking a view backward, the development of study circles in Taiwan was triggered by“Mama chong diann hwei”in Taipei and“Yang farn juu fuh sheh”in Kaohsiung. Since the remoal the Martial law and the promotion of cormnunitarialism and feminism in Taiwan, study circles have progressed steadily until today. According to statistics printed by the 5th National Study Circles Fair in October 2001, the number of Study Circles in Taiwan has reached 1,912.
Though the number is encouraging, we found that a great deal of study circles have disbanded, stopped activities or replaced their original goals. Though the bubble-phenomenon regarding study circles is worthy of research and observation, generally speaking, the development of study circles has typically followed 4 stages: preparation, development, fatigue and maturation. During the development process, if particular study circles can't pass through the fatigue stage, they will usually dissolve very soon, normally not lasting for longer than half year. Though some study circles are like bubbles, there are also a lot of study circles that have existed more than 10 years, have more than 50 members (some more than 200 members), and continue to be more stable and reputable. It seems that the leadership and management of study circles' conveners is directly related to the success of the organizations. This tendency has become the theme to be further researched by this study.
In USA, there were 500,000 study circles in 1997. In Sweden, there were 350,000 study circles In 1996. Presently, there are 1,912 study circles in Taiwan with about 23 million population Compared to the USA and Sweden, the participation rate is quite low. During this“life-long” learning age, there is quite a bit of latitude in regards to the development of study circles.
This thesis used "documentary-type methods" ,"in depth interviews" , "comparative study" and "focus group" styles to try to establish various leadership models such as "different development stage leadership model", "Yuki's valid leadership behavior model" and "Yin-and promote their respective study circles.
The conclusion is 1.The member fees and official registration of study circles do not determine the success of a study circle versus what the study circle can give to the members. 2.Different stages need different leadership, leadership includes decision making, influence, relations, information and contingency. Contingency leadership is the center of all leadership. 3.Leadership has the dual dimensions of wisdom and knowledge , those two help and engender each other. 4.Study circles can participate in community issues and public policies to help establish a more civil society.
The suggestions are 1.The members of the study circles should base themselves on "self-directional learning" to participate and target "life long" learning. 2. The conveners of the study circles have the phenomenon of exhaustion, the study circles should cultivate suitable members to take over the role of leaders to progress the study circles. 3.The study circles should choose their market segment, follow the development of the society, and find their own performing stage. 4.The study circles can organize new member training programs, publishing books and another activities to upgrade the cohesion of study circles. 5. The conveners of the study circles should improve their leadership and knowledge to lead the organization to walk into the new age. 6.Transformational leadership and servant leadership are more appropriate style for study circles' conveners. 7.The government's policy of sponsoring the study circles should be maintained to help develop the study circles. S.The government should help to establish a study circle resource center to promote the progress of the study circles on a national front.
Key words: study circles; conveners; self-direction learning;transformational leadership; servant leadership.