This paper argues that pragmatic considerations are involved in the
selection of Malay passive types. The kena passive, which is the third Malay
passive, occurs in limited frequency in specific contexts. These limited
occurrences of the kena passive raise questions whether there are pragmatic
specifications of this passive type which constrain its use.
Although the kena passive is recognized as a type of
Two research questions are examined in this work regarding the uses of ‘market’
in Mandarin, Malay and English. The first question asks whether the
use of ‘market’ in these three languages is similar or different. The second
question asks whether the collocates of the ‘market’ are similar or different
across these languages when used in different grammatical relations.
Implications of the similarities and differences will be discussed. In order
to answer these two questions, ‘market’ metaphors used by different communities
are laid out based on the frequency counts of its source domains
and the collocates according to different grammatical roles (subject, object,
modifier, etc.) of ‘market.’The results show that certain source domains have
preferences for different grammatical roles for ‘market.’ In addition to this
finding, the choice of source domains by different speech communities may
also reflect their perspectives regarding their country’s economy. Therefore,
through using quantitative data, this paper is able to infer the perspectives
of these speech communities when referring to ‘market’ in their languages.
This can be done not only through analyzing the semantic meanings of the
metaphors, but also through their interface with grammatical relations.
Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory, Vol.4, No.2, pp.141-175