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    Title: 華人多元自我的檢證---四元自我的區分及相對重要性與不同比較訊息之關聯(III)
    Other Titles: The Multuple Selves of the Chinese
    Authors: 孫蒨如
    Contributors: 國立政治大學心理學系
    行政院國家科學委員會
    Keywords: 心理
    Date: 2010
    Issue Date: 2012-11-08 14:05:46 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 許多跨文化研究都指出文化的影響深遠,因此在不同文化下成長的個人,其基本的自我建構就相當不同。Markus和Kitayama (1991)認為西方人擁有的自我是一個獨立我的概念,強調自我的獨特性,而東方文化影響下的個人其自我則多以相依我為主,此種自我強調的是與社會環境的配合,行為要恰如其分。國內學者楊國樞(1993)則針對儒家文化影響下的華人,提出了個人取向自我﹙individual-oriented self﹚與社會取向的自我﹙social-oriented self﹚的架構,相當程度地呼應了獨立我及相依我的概念,同時也強調這兩種不同的自我建構會使得個體評估、組織,及調控個體本身經驗及行為的方式也隨之不同。在2004 年楊國樞又更進一步地提出了華人『自我四元論』的想法,同時對其之前所提的社會取向自我的論述,做了更清楚的界定(楊國樞,2004)。楊氏認為,除了個人取向自我之外,華人的社會取向自我中其實包括了三種不同的自我:關係取向自我、家族/團體取向自我,及他人取向自我。換言之,楊氏認為只有自我四元論方能周延地涵蓋華人的自我。針對這個頗為創新、也對華人社會有著深遠影響的四元自我論述,筆者設計了三年一系列的計畫對來對其進行檢驗。在第一年、亦即九十七年度的計畫中,筆者首先藉由故事觸發及照片觸發的方式,成功地建立了建立操弄及活絡華人四元自我的有效途徑,也確認了華人四元自我的存在。筆者目前正在進行第二年計畫,主要在探討四元自我與各種比較訊息之間的關聯,因為在個體形成自我建構時,相關的比較訊息常是其中不可或缺的重要部份。筆者預計以模擬實驗情境的方式進行探討,研究設計為4 (模糊情境:個人取向自我狀態模糊 vs. 關係取向自我模糊vs.家族/團體取向自我模糊vs. 他人取向自我模糊)X 3 (比較訊息種類:一般性社會比較訊息vs. 有關人士之社會比較訊息vs. 時序比較訊息) 的混合設計。比較訊息種類為受試者內變項,不同比較訊息其意涵不同,筆者希望藉由分析個體所選擇的訊息的不同比例和優先順序,來了解不同自我的意涵。目前預試部分已完成,正在依預試結果建構正式實驗材料。在最後一年,亦即本次所提出的計畫案中,筆者則是希望探討四元自我的相對重要性。在楊氏的自我四元論中強調社會取向自我可再區分為三種不同取向的自我,但這三種不同的自我對個體的相對重要性為何,或是當情境使得不只一種取向的自我同時活躍時,何者更為重要?這些都有待澄清。筆者將藉由兩個實驗來進行檢驗,實驗一主要探討個體在面對不同社會取向自我衝突的情境中的取捨,是一個(關係取向自我與.家族/團體取向自我衝突或關係取向自我與.他人取向自我衝突或家族/團體取向自我與.他人取向自我衝突)的設計,主要依變項為該種情形下受試者會優先顧全何種自我。實驗二則是藉由衝擊與正向回饋方式,探討不同取向自我的相對重要性,為一3(衝擊情境:關係取向自我vs. 家族/團體取向自我vs. 他人取向自我)X 3(正向回饋情境:關係取向自我vs. 家族/團體取向自我vs. 他人取向自我)設計,再減去衝擊及正向回饋均相同的三組情境。主要依變項是對該狀況的評估、自我評價,及情緒變化。筆者認為藉由這三年一系列的研究,應該可以讓我們對華人的四元自我有著更清楚的認識。
    There is currently a growing body of literature suggests that people in different cultures have different construal of the self (Markus & Kitayama,1991). The independent view of the self is clearly exemplified in American andWestern European cultures, whereas most individuals in Asian cultures (Chinese people, for example) have interdependent view of the self. Some cross-cultural studies did show that individuals with different self-construal would experience different cognitive and emotional consequences. In 2004, instead of the simple differentiation of independent self and interdependent self, K. S. Yang proposed a more complete and complex self model for the Chinese people. He suggests that Chinese people have multiple selves, which includes individual-oriented self, relationship-oriented self, familistic (group)- oriented self, and other- oriented self. I proposed three major studies to explore the multiple selves model of the Chinese. In Study 1, two effective ways to activate the different selves of the Chinese were established and the model of multiple selves got support. In study 2, I try to investigate the relations between four different selves and different comparison information. A 4 (ambiguity of self: individual-oriented self vs. relationship- oriented self vs. familistic (group)- oriented self, vs. other- oriented self.) X 3 (types of comparison information: general social comparison information vs. specific social comparison information vs. temporal comparison information) mixed design will be employed. Dependent measures are the proportions of different social comparison information chose and the priority of different comparison information. In study 3, the relative importance of different selves will be investigated and two experiments will be conducted to serve this purpose. Three conflict situations will be created in Experiment 1, which are the conflict between relationship-oriented self and the familistic (group)- oriented self, the conflict between relationship-oriented self and other-oriented self, and the conflict between familistic (group)- oriented self and otheroriented self. Dependent measures are the priority of conflict resolution, self-evaluation, and emotion measures. Experiment 2 is a 3 (impact on different selves: relationship-oriented self vs. familistic (group)- oriented self vs. other- oriented self ) X 3 (affirmation on different selves: relationship-oriented self vs. familistic (group)- oriented self vs. other- oriented self) factorial design, minus 3 repeated conditions. Dependent measures are evaluation of target persons, self-evaluation, and emotion measures.
    Relation: 基礎研究
    學術補助
    研究期間:9908~ 10007
    研究經費:782仟元
    Data Type: report
    Appears in Collections:[Department of Psychology] NSC Projects

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