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    Title: 意志現象學:從鄂蘭出發兼對墨子應用
    Phenomenology of the will: building upon Arendt and applying to Mozi
    Authors: 愛西里爾
    Contributors: 汪文聖
    愛西里爾
    Keywords: 意志現象學
    意志
    鄂蘭
    墨子
    phenomenology of will
    will
    Arendt
    Mozi
    Date: 2012
    Issue Date: 2013-05-01 11:43:35 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 在哲學史上「意志」、「自由」和「行爲」一直讓思想家反思、洞察並發表多方面地的論點。這些理論和研究結果反映了思想家們的不同生活背景和推論的能力。雖然這些思想提供甚多有價值的理念和研究綫索,但大多數的理論和觀點難以完全脫離主觀性和片面性。
    現象學讓主體由現象經驗出發而發現主體内在生活原則和其行動的由來。現象學追求主體際性的「相對」客觀性,相對客觀的經驗能夠當研究依據和研究檢驗研究結果的有效性。因此使用基本現象學立場和研究工具以研究「意志」能夠提供相對普遍有效的研究成果。
    漢娜‧鄂蘭(Hannah Arendt),一位當代的現象學家,對人的「意志」進行了多方面的研究。他的研究納入哲學史上不同時代對「意志」的研究成果,而她以現象學立場針對一些重要的理論理論和觀點(包括聖奧古斯丁(St. Augustine)、司各脫(Duns Scott)和康德)。鄂蘭綜合不同的論點並發表自己對「意志」的研究成果。然而,她的研究方法不顯示嚴禁的現象學方法論,而她的論點缺乏整體性和普遍有效性。
    本研究發現「意志」現象的基本主軸原則:自發性是「意志」現象的必備因素,也是其充分必要條件。此原則成爲本研究的核心觀點,研究的每一部分直接連接到此基本原則。此原則讓研究者建立並發展意志現象理論架構。
    本論著以現象學研究立場針對「意志」方面的現象經驗,其反思鄂蘭的研究成果,而嘗試建立一個系統性的意志現象理論架構。此架構的基本特質是其依據的相對客觀性。此理論架構建立後,需要確認其普遍性和開放性。中國哲學傳統雖然沒有直接發展「意志」觀念和理論,但也沒有忽略「意志」現象,墨家哲學在其倫理、政治和社會思想蘊含著一種特殊的「意志」理念預設。此基本預設讓墨家哲學建立一套合理的人觀和政治理論以解決具體的社會問題。因此本研究先嘗試重新研究鄂蘭所發揮「意志」思想以建立一個基本現1象學理論架構,此後使用此理論架構以詮釋墨家思想裡所蘊含的「意志」哲學,納入其基本因素以發展此理論架構並檢驗其普遍性和開放性。研究墨家思想不單單試驗現象理論的材料,而其也積極地擴充所建構的現象學理論架構,讓此理論架構克服一些内在的理論困境。
    本研究確認「意志」為「意志」的自主心靈官能,其具有自由和自發性,不受思想和判斷力的約束,也不被外在和内在非意志因素所決定或引導。這些觀點與鄂蘭的相似,然而鄂蘭所發揮的「意志」觀點和原則缺乏普遍性,其「意志」現象局限於具體的行動和未來,她也非充分地研究集體的意志現象。而聖奥古斯丁和墨家思想幫助克服此局限性。聖奥古斯丁的「愛」和墨家的「兼愛」和「意志」有内在的關係,而其容許擴充「意志」的對象範圍到整個時間流(包括過去、現在和未來)和任何具體或非具體的對象和主體的任何行爲和心靈活動。此有助於研究跟意志有關的一切外在和内在因素,並建立普遍性的意志現象學理論架構。
    此也容許建立基本的集體意志現象學理論架構,而此架構建立後,其能夠做研究政治和社會現象的基本理論工具。本論著的後部嘗試進行對集體意志現象研究以擴充前部所建構的主體意志現象學架構。而在此方面墨家哲學也提供一些不可或缺的觀念。具體而言,墨家哲學容許融合多主體的意志自由與主體順從專制權威可能性。
    最後,一個相當有整體性和普遍性的意志現象學理論架構被形成,而此架構也經得起現象經驗和理論推理的審核以呈現其有效性。
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    Description: 博士
    國立政治大學
    哲學研究所
    97154508
    101
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0097154508
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[哲學系] 學位論文

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