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    Title: 在英文課堂中利用文學小圈圈培養臺灣高中生批判性思考
    Using Literature Circles to develop critical thinking skills in a senior high EFL classroom in Taiwan
    Authors: 林芸亦
    Lin, Yun Yi
    Contributors: 招靜琪
    Chao, Chin Chi
    Lin, Yun Yi
    Keywords: 文學小圈圈
    Literature Circles
    Critical thinking
    Date: 2012
    Issue Date: 2013-09-02 17:44:28 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 思考是在歷史上是重要的教育目標,台灣英語教學環境過去較不重視,直到普通高級中學英文科99課綱納入批判性思考(critical thinking)與創造性思考(creative thinking)的培養後,才較重視。然而,多數英語教師仍關心該如何在教學現場融合批判思考。作者嘗試使用文學小圈圈(literature circles)引導學生閱讀,並透過學生提問、學生閱讀心得及問卷調查了解文學小圈圈對於學生思考力的提升。本文旨在研究文學小圈圈對南台灣高中生英文課堂上思考力之培養。本研究為質性個案研究,參與本研究的學生為高雄市某校三十七位高二學生。文學小圈圈教學為期七週,每週有兩節課的時間。閱讀教材為七篇短篇故事,改編自簡易小說讀本與教科書,第一和最後一篇為學生自讀,第二篇為教師示範,第三到六篇以文學小圈圈模式進行。本研究所收集的資料為學生針對第一和最後一篇自讀文章的提問和讀後感,以布魯姆(B. S. Bloom)1956 年提出的認知領域教育目標分類(A Taxonomy of Educational Objectives)來分析學生的提問和讀後感,分為六類:一、知識;二、理解;三、應用;四、分析;五、綜合;六、評鑑。
    結果顯示,第一,學生的提問顯示,雖然他們在分析、綜合、評鑑等高層次方面無明顯提升,但能夠在問題中增加詮釋和應用層次。多數問題由 “why”開始也顯示出批判思考能力。本研究並發現有些學生的提問無法符合六種認知層次,這些問題基於不相關細節與嬉戲般的想像力而無法回答,然而這仍可顯示出學生用故事的細節結合自己的假設與想像,而能培養部分批判思考力的發展。學生讀後感顯示出量與質的提升,在文學小圈圈後不但字數增加,並且能在一篇心得內融入更多思考層次,增加個人自我解讀以及批判模式。由學生的問卷更可看出學生覺得文學小圈圈對他們的語言能力、合作、社交互動、學習行為習慣與態度的改變,並且有助於思考力提升。有趣的是,學生似乎將文學小圈圈任務角色的困難度和思考力做關聯,他們認為繪圖者的角色較無法提高思考力因此最容易,而推論者、提問、連結者最能提升思考力,但也相對困難。學生在文學小圈圈面臨到分組討論、語言障礙、時間壓力、角色任務、以及閱讀素材方面的困難,因此也提供了相關建議。結論提出實行文學小圈圈於台灣英語教學現場的建議,並同時提出不足之處,以供將來研究與實務參考。
    Thinking has been an educational goal throughout the history (Scanlan, 2006; Wu, 2000), but it did not receive much attention in the Taiwanese EFL context until the publication of 2010 Guidelines for Senior High School English Curriculum which addedcritical and creative thinking skills. However, many English teachers are still concerned about how to incorporate critical thinking skills in regular EFL classes. Therefore, this study aims to explore how the implementation of literature circles leads to the development of critical thinking skills among senior high school students and how students perceive literature circles. The classroom researchapproach was used to conduct the study. The participants were 37 students in the second year of senior high school. During the seven-week study, the students read seven short stories: the first and last one were independent reading, the second one was the demonstration lesson, the third to sixth ones took the literature circles model. Student-generated questions and response logsin the first and last independent reading stories were collected and analyzed. The coding scheme used to evaluate students’questions and responses was adopted from Bloom’s (1956) taxonomy: (1) knowledge, (2) comprehension, (3) application, (4) analysis, (5) synthesis, and (6)evaluation.
    Important findings are summarized below. First, changes in student-generated questions suggest thatthe students had slight development toward critical thinking after literature circles. Even though the students did not have much increase in analysis, synthesis, and evaluation level, they added more interpretation and
    application to their questions. The prevalence of “Why” questions also indicatesthe development of critical thinking. It was also found that some of the student-generated questions did not fit into any of the six cognitive levels because they were unanswerable with irrelevant details and playful imagination. However, some critical thinking is still developed through the process when the students integrate their own hypothesis and imagination based on the irrelevant details of the story.Changes in student-generated responses show the increase in quantity and quality with more variety of cognitive levels. The responses also suggest the development of students’ thinking in personal interpretive and critical modes. Students’ perception questionnaire shows the advantages of literature circles, including improvement in language proficiency, development in cooperation, social interaction, learning behavior, attitudinal change, and thinking cultivation. Interestingly, the students seemed to associate the difficulty of the tasks with thinking. Therefore, the task of illustrator was regarded as the easiest because it required less thinking demand, while the task of inferrer, questioner, and connector were viewed as the most helpful in developing thinking capability yet difficult tasks. As for the difficulties and suggestions, the students encountered difficulties in group discussion, language barrier, time pressure, difficult tasks, and reading materials. Suggestions were proposed to meet their needs. Pedagogical implications,limitations, and suggestions for future studies were presented as well.
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    Description: 碩士
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0969510012
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[英語教學碩士在職專班] 學位論文

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