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Using Literature Circles to develop critical thinking skills in a senior high EFL classroom in Taiwan
Lin, Yun Yi
Chao, Chin Chi
Lin, Yun Yi
|Issue Date: ||2013-09-02 17:44:28 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract: ||思考是在歷史上是重要的教育目標，台灣英語教學環境過去較不重視，直到普通高級中學英文科99課綱納入批判性思考(critical thinking)與創造性思考(creative thinking)的培養後，才較重視。然而，多數英語教師仍關心該如何在教學現場融合批判思考。作者嘗試使用文學小圈圈(literature circles)引導學生閱讀，並透過學生提問、學生閱讀心得及問卷調查了解文學小圈圈對於學生思考力的提升。本文旨在研究文學小圈圈對南台灣高中生英文課堂上思考力之培養。本研究為質性個案研究，參與本研究的學生為高雄市某校三十七位高二學生。文學小圈圈教學為期七週，每週有兩節課的時間。閱讀教材為七篇短篇故事，改編自簡易小說讀本與教科書，第一和最後一篇為學生自讀，第二篇為教師示範，第三到六篇以文學小圈圈模式進行。本研究所收集的資料為學生針對第一和最後一篇自讀文章的提問和讀後感，以布魯姆(B. S. Bloom)1956 年提出的認知領域教育目標分類(A Taxonomy of Educational Objectives)來分析學生的提問和讀後感，分為六類：一、知識；二、理解；三、應用；四、分析；五、綜合；六、評鑑。 |
Thinking has been an educational goal throughout the history (Scanlan, 2006; Wu, 2000), but it did not receive much attention in the Taiwanese EFL context until the publication of 2010 Guidelines for Senior High School English Curriculum which addedcritical and creative thinking skills. However, many English teachers are still concerned about how to incorporate critical thinking skills in regular EFL classes. Therefore, this study aims to explore how the implementation of literature circles leads to the development of critical thinking skills among senior high school students and how students perceive literature circles. The classroom researchapproach was used to conduct the study. The participants were 37 students in the second year of senior high school. During the seven-week study, the students read seven short stories: the first and last one were independent reading, the second one was the demonstration lesson, the third to sixth ones took the literature circles model. Student-generated questions and response logsin the first and last independent reading stories were collected and analyzed. The coding scheme used to evaluate students’questions and responses was adopted from Bloom’s (1956) taxonomy: (1) knowledge, (2) comprehension, (3) application, (4) analysis, (5) synthesis, and (6)evaluation.
Important findings are summarized below. First, changes in student-generated questions suggest thatthe students had slight development toward critical thinking after literature circles. Even though the students did not have much increase in analysis, synthesis, and evaluation level, they added more interpretation and
application to their questions. The prevalence of “Why” questions also indicatesthe development of critical thinking. It was also found that some of the student-generated questions did not fit into any of the six cognitive levels because they were unanswerable with irrelevant details and playful imagination. However, some critical thinking is still developed through the process when the students integrate their own hypothesis and imagination based on the irrelevant details of the story.Changes in student-generated responses show the increase in quantity and quality with more variety of cognitive levels. The responses also suggest the development of students’ thinking in personal interpretive and critical modes. Students’ perception questionnaire shows the advantages of literature circles, including improvement in language proficiency, development in cooperation, social interaction, learning behavior, attitudinal change, and thinking cultivation. Interestingly, the students seemed to associate the difficulty of the tasks with thinking. Therefore, the task of illustrator was regarded as the easiest because it required less thinking demand, while the task of inferrer, questioner, and connector were viewed as the most helpful in developing thinking capability yet difficult tasks. As for the difficulties and suggestions, the students encountered difficulties in group discussion, language barrier, time pressure, difficult tasks, and reading materials. Suggestions were proposed to meet their needs. Pedagogical implications,limitations, and suggestions for future studies were presented as well.
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