English  |  正體中文  |  简体中文  |  Post-Print筆數 : 27 |  Items with full text/Total items : 91913/122132 (75%)
Visitors : 25784626      Online Users : 92
RC Version 6.0 © Powered By DSPACE, MIT. Enhanced by NTU Library IR team.
Scope Tips:
  • please add "double quotation mark" for query phrases to get precise results
  • please goto advance search for comprehansive author search
  • Adv. Search
    HomeLoginUploadHelpAboutAdminister Goto mobile version
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/59629


    Title: 在英文課堂中利用文學小圈圈培養臺灣高中生批判性思考
    Using Literature Circles to develop critical thinking skills in a senior high EFL classroom in Taiwan
    Authors: 林芸亦
    Lin, Yun Yi
    Contributors: 招靜琪
    Chao, Chin Chi
    林芸亦
    Lin, Yun Yi
    Keywords: 文學小圈圈
    批判性思考
    Literature Circles
    Critical thinking
    Date: 2012
    Issue Date: 2013-09-02 17:44:28 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 思考是在歷史上是重要的教育目標,台灣英語教學環境過去較不重視,直到普通高級中學英文科99課綱納入批判性思考(critical thinking)與創造性思考(creative thinking)的培養後,才較重視。然而,多數英語教師仍關心該如何在教學現場融合批判思考。作者嘗試使用文學小圈圈(literature circles)引導學生閱讀,並透過學生提問、學生閱讀心得及問卷調查了解文學小圈圈對於學生思考力的提升。本文旨在研究文學小圈圈對南台灣高中生英文課堂上思考力之培養。本研究為質性個案研究,參與本研究的學生為高雄市某校三十七位高二學生。文學小圈圈教學為期七週,每週有兩節課的時間。閱讀教材為七篇短篇故事,改編自簡易小說讀本與教科書,第一和最後一篇為學生自讀,第二篇為教師示範,第三到六篇以文學小圈圈模式進行。本研究所收集的資料為學生針對第一和最後一篇自讀文章的提問和讀後感,以布魯姆(B. S. Bloom)1956 年提出的認知領域教育目標分類(A Taxonomy of Educational Objectives)來分析學生的提問和讀後感,分為六類:一、知識;二、理解;三、應用;四、分析;五、綜合;六、評鑑。
    結果顯示,第一,學生的提問顯示,雖然他們在分析、綜合、評鑑等高層次方面無明顯提升,但能夠在問題中增加詮釋和應用層次。多數問題由 “why”開始也顯示出批判思考能力。本研究並發現有些學生的提問無法符合六種認知層次,這些問題基於不相關細節與嬉戲般的想像力而無法回答,然而這仍可顯示出學生用故事的細節結合自己的假設與想像,而能培養部分批判思考力的發展。學生讀後感顯示出量與質的提升,在文學小圈圈後不但字數增加,並且能在一篇心得內融入更多思考層次,增加個人自我解讀以及批判模式。由學生的問卷更可看出學生覺得文學小圈圈對他們的語言能力、合作、社交互動、學習行為習慣與態度的改變,並且有助於思考力提升。有趣的是,學生似乎將文學小圈圈任務角色的困難度和思考力做關聯,他們認為繪圖者的角色較無法提高思考力因此最容易,而推論者、提問、連結者最能提升思考力,但也相對困難。學生在文學小圈圈面臨到分組討論、語言障礙、時間壓力、角色任務、以及閱讀素材方面的困難,因此也提供了相關建議。結論提出實行文學小圈圈於台灣英語教學現場的建議,並同時提出不足之處,以供將來研究與實務參考。
    Thinking has been an educational goal throughout the history (Scanlan, 2006; Wu, 2000), but it did not receive much attention in the Taiwanese EFL context until the publication of 2010 Guidelines for Senior High School English Curriculum which addedcritical and creative thinking skills. However, many English teachers are still concerned about how to incorporate critical thinking skills in regular EFL classes. Therefore, this study aims to explore how the implementation of literature circles leads to the development of critical thinking skills among senior high school students and how students perceive literature circles. The classroom researchapproach was used to conduct the study. The participants were 37 students in the second year of senior high school. During the seven-week study, the students read seven short stories: the first and last one were independent reading, the second one was the demonstration lesson, the third to sixth ones took the literature circles model. Student-generated questions and response logsin the first and last independent reading stories were collected and analyzed. The coding scheme used to evaluate students’questions and responses was adopted from Bloom’s (1956) taxonomy: (1) knowledge, (2) comprehension, (3) application, (4) analysis, (5) synthesis, and (6)evaluation.
    Important findings are summarized below. First, changes in student-generated questions suggest thatthe students had slight development toward critical thinking after literature circles. Even though the students did not have much increase in analysis, synthesis, and evaluation level, they added more interpretation and
    application to their questions. The prevalence of “Why” questions also indicatesthe development of critical thinking. It was also found that some of the student-generated questions did not fit into any of the six cognitive levels because they were unanswerable with irrelevant details and playful imagination. However, some critical thinking is still developed through the process when the students integrate their own hypothesis and imagination based on the irrelevant details of the story.Changes in student-generated responses show the increase in quantity and quality with more variety of cognitive levels. The responses also suggest the development of students’ thinking in personal interpretive and critical modes. Students’ perception questionnaire shows the advantages of literature circles, including improvement in language proficiency, development in cooperation, social interaction, learning behavior, attitudinal change, and thinking cultivation. Interestingly, the students seemed to associate the difficulty of the tasks with thinking. Therefore, the task of illustrator was regarded as the easiest because it required less thinking demand, while the task of inferrer, questioner, and connector were viewed as the most helpful in developing thinking capability yet difficult tasks. As for the difficulties and suggestions, the students encountered difficulties in group discussion, language barrier, time pressure, difficult tasks, and reading materials. Suggestions were proposed to meet their needs. Pedagogical implications,limitations, and suggestions for future studies were presented as well.
    Reference: Alwood, C. S. (2000). Exploring the role of the teacher in student-led literature circles. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED442748)
    Atkinson, D. (1997). A critical approach to critical thinking in TESOL. TESOL Quarterly, 31(1), 71-94.
    Atwell, N. (1998). In the middle: New understandings about writing, reading,and learning (2nd edition). Portsmouth, NH: Boynton-Cook.
    Babalioutas, D., & Papadopoulou, M. (2007). Teaching critical literacy through print advertisements: An intervention with 6th grade students (Ages 11-12). TheInternational Journal of Learning, 14(7), 119-127.
    Barak, M., & Doppelt, Y. (1999). Integrating the Cognitive Research Trust (CoRT) Programme for creative thinking into a project-based technology curriculum. Research in Science & Technological Education, 17(2), 139-151.
    Beach, R. W., & Marshall, J. D. (1991). Teaching literature in the secondary school. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
    Bedel, O. (2011). Literature Circles in the EFL classroom: How Literature Circles stimulate the classroom interaction and promote the social and cooperative learning in the EFL classroom. Retrieved June 30, 2012, from http://eltdigest.com/literaturecircles/?page_id=15
    Bloom, B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: Classification of educational goals. Handbook 1: Cognitive domain. New York:Longman, Green & Co.
    Bloom, B. S., Engelahar, M. D., Frust, E. J., Hill, W. H., & Krathwohl, D. R. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objective, handbook 1: Cognitive domain. New York: David McKay.
    Braun, N. M. (2004). Critical Thinking in the Business Curriculum. Journal of Education for Business, 79, 232-236.
    Brown, B. A. (2002). Literature circles in action in the middle school classroom.Georgia College and State University. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED478458)
    Brown, E. (1997). Effectively teaching critical thinking skills to high school learners. Seton Hall University. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED429850)
    Browne, M. N., & Freeman, K. (2000). Distinguishing features of critical thinking classrooms. Teaching in Higher Education, 5(3), 301-309.
    Browning, C., Halvorsen, J., & Ahlquist, D. (1996). Shared inquiry fosters critical thinking skills in EFL learners. In Hokkai Gakuen University, Kokugakuin Junior College, and The Great Books Foundation, On JALT 96: Crossing Boarders. Tokyo: Japan Association for Language Teaching.
    Brunt, B. A.(2005). Critical Thinking in Nursing: An Integrated Review. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 36 (2005), 60-67.
    Burns, B. (1998). Changing the classroom climate with literature circles. Journal ofAdolescent & Adult Literacy, 42(2), 124-130.
    Carr, S. C., Purcell, I. P., & Bolitho, F. H. (1999). Managing attitudes toward high achievers: the influence of group discussion. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 2, 237-244.
    Chen, L. H. (1989).The Soul-searching of Critical Thinking Teaching in Elementary School Social Studies.Contemporary Education,15, 121-135.
    Chern, Chiou-lan. (2005). The role of junior high school EFL reading and instruction in Nine Year Integrated Curriculum. The challenge and solution of Englishinstruction in Nine year Integrated Curriculum. Taipei: NTNU.
    Chiang, M. H. (2007). A novel idea: English as foreign language reading via virtual literature circles. English Teaching & Learning, 31(4), 1-37.
    Chilcoat, C. L. (2003). Literature circles guided by comprehension strategies. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.
    Chiodo, J. J. & Tsai, M. H. (1995). Taiwanese Students in American Universities: Are They Ready for Critical Thinking?College Student Journal, 29(3), 374-382.
    Chiodo, J. J. & Tsai, M. H. (1997). Secondary School Teachers’ Perspectives of Teaching Critical Thinking in Social Studies in the Republic of China. Journal of Social Studies Research, Fall, 1997.
    Chou, C. T., et al. (2005). The Lady or the Tiger. Lungteng EnglishReader for Senior High SchoolsBook 5. Taipei, Taiwan: Far East Co., Ltd.
    Clark, D. R. (2007). Learning domains or Bloom’s taxonomy. Retrieved August 20, 2010, from http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/bloom.html
    Cohen, R. (1983). Self-generated questions as an aid to reading comprehension. The Reading Teacher, 36, 770-775.
    Commeyras, M. (1994). Were Janell and Neesiein the same classroom? Children's questions as the first order of reality in storybook discussions. Language Arts, 71, 517-523.
    Commeyras, M., & Sumner, G. (1998). Literature Questions Children Want to Discuss: What Teachers and Students Learned in a Second-Grade Classroom. The Elementary School Journal, 99 (2), 129-152.
    Condon, W., & Kelly-Riley, D. (2004). Assessing and teaching what we value: The relationship between college-level writing and critical thinking abilities. Assessing Writing, 9, 56-75.
    Costa, A. (1989). Toward the Thinking Curriculum: Current Cognitive Research Yearbook of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. pp. vi-vii. Alexandria, VA.
    Cotton, K. (1991). Close-up #11: Teaching thinking skills. Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory’s School Improvement Research Series Web. RetrievedJuly 15, 2012, from http://educationnorthwest.org/webfm_send/502
    Critical Thinking and Literature-Based Reading. (1997).Madison, WI: The Institute for Academic Excellence. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED421688)
    Cummins, J. (1989) Empowering Minority Students. Sacramento: California Association for Bilingual Education.
    Daniels, H. (1994). Literature Circles: voice and choice in the student centeredclassroom. York, Maine: Stenhouse Publishers.
    Daniels, H. (2002). Literature circles: Voice and choice in book clubs and reading groups. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers.
    Davidson, B., & Dunham, R. (1996). Assessing EFL student progress in critical thinking with the Ennis-Weir Critical Thinking Essay Test.
    Day, R. (2003). Teaching critical thinking and discussion. The language Teacher, 27(7), 25-27.
    De Bono, E. (1990). Six thinking hats. London: Penguin.
    Dewey, J. (1909). How we think. London: D.C.Heath & Co.
    Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and education. New York, Macmillan, 1997.
    Ediger, M. (2002). Literacy and literature circles. Truman State University. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED467513)
    Elder, L. & Paul, R. (1994). Critical thinking: Why we must transform our teaching. Journal of Developmental Education, 18(1), 34-35.
    Facione, P. A. (2007).Critical Thinking: What It Is and Why It Counts. Milbrae, CA: The California Academic Press.
    Facione, P. A., Giancarlo, C. A., Facione, N. C., & Gainen, J. (1995). The Disposition toward Critical Thinking.Journal of General Education, 44(1), 1-25.
    Fang, R. J., Lin, C. C., Yang, H. J. H., Lee, C. J., Tsai, H. L., & Tsai, T.S. (2008) A Study to Increase the Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Abilities by Web-based Learning. Proceedings of the 8th WSEAS International Conference on Multimedia Systems and Signal Processing.
    Ghahremani-Ghajar, S., & Mirhosseini, S. (2005). English Class or Speaking about Everything Class? Dialogue Journal Writing as a Critical EFL Literacy Practice in an Iranian High School. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 18(3), 286-299.
    Goh, W., Dexter, B., & Murphy, W. D. (2007). Promoting critical thinking with computer mediated communication technology. Web-Based Education, 2, 580-585.
    Goodlad, J. I. (1983). A place called school: Prospects for the future. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Halpern, D. (1997). Critical thinking across the curriculum. Mahwah, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Halpern, D. F. (1998). Teaching critical thinking for transfer across domains: Dispositions, skills, structure training, and metacognitive monitoring. American Psychologist, 53, 449−455.
    Ho, I-P. (2005). Using young adult literature and applying reader-response theory to teach EFL reading. The Proceedings of the 22nd Conference on English Teaching and Learning (pp. 107-115). National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei.
    Hsu, J-Y & Liu, S-Y. (2005). Faulker’s Emily revives: Experimentingliteraturecircles with Taiwanese college students. Paper presented at the 22nd International Conference on English Teaching and Learning in the Republic of China, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Hsu, J-Y. (2004). Reading without teachers: Literature circles in an EFL classroom. The Proceedings of 2004 Cross-Strait Conference on English Education (pp. 401-421), National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. 492558)
    Huang, H-Y. (2008). Implementing Literature Circle in and EFL Reading Class at a Technological University. Unpublished master thesis, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, Taiwan.
    Huang, N. & Lee, D. (2004). A Discourse Analysis of Asynchronous Discussion Board on Students Critical Thinking.Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning inCorporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education, 708-713.
    Hung, J. Y. (2010). Effects of Literature Circles on English Reading Performance for Senior High School Students in Central Taiwan. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Taiwan.
    Inch, E. S., Warnick, B., & Endres, D. (2006). Critical thinking and communication: The use of reason in argument. New York: Pearson Educational Inc.
    Kamada, L. D. (1996). Comparing cultures through critical thinking: Development and interpretation of meaningful observations. Hirosaki University. On JALT 96: Crossing Boarders. Tokyo: Japan Association for Language Teaching.
    Kassem, C. L. (2005). A conceptual model for the design and delivery of explicit thinking skills instruction. The Twelfth International Conference on Learning, Granada, Spain.
    Keene, E.O., & Zimmermann, S. (1997). Mosaic of thought: Teaching comprehension in a reader’s workshop. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Kegan, R. (1994) In Over Our Heads: The Mental Demands of Modern Life. Harvard University Press: Cambridge.
    Ketch, A. (2005) .Conversation: The Comprehension Connection. Reading Teacher, 59(1), 8-13
    Kim, M. (2004). Literature discussions in adult L2 learning. Language and Education, 18(2), 145-166.
    Klaczynski, P. A.(2001).Framing Effects on Adolescent Task Representations, Analytic and Heuristic Processing, and Decision Making: Implications for the Normative/descriptive Gap.Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 22, 289-309.
    Lai, C. F. (2011). Cultivating Critical Thinking through Integrating Literature Circles into EFL Freshman English Classes. Unpublished master’s thesis, Tunghai University, Taiwan.
    Lazere, D. (1987). Critical thinking in college English studies. Urbana IL: ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills. (ERIC Doc. No. ED 284275).
    Leal, D. J. (1993). The power of literacy peer-group discussions: How children collaboratively negotiate meanings. The Reading Teacher, 47(2), 114-120.
    Lehman, B., & Scharer, P. (1996). Reading alone, talking together: The role of discussion in developing literary awareness. Reading Teacher, 50, 26-35.
    Lehr, F. (1982). Developing critical reading and thinking skills.Journal of Reading, 25, 804-807
    Li, X., & Cao, R. H. (2006). Integrating computer-mediated communication into an EAP course. Front. Educ. China, 4, 589-600.
    Liaw, M. L. (2007). Content-based reading and writing for critical thinking skills in an EFL context. English Teaching & Learning, 31(2), 45-87.
    Lin, C-H. (2002). Literature circles. ERIC Digest. Bloomingon: Eric Clearninghouse on Reading, English, and Communication. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 469925).
    Lin, S-J. (2006). The effects of literature circles on EFL learning of children in abilingual class. Unpublished master thesis, Kaohsiung Normal University, Taiwan.
    Lipman, M. (1991). Thinking in education. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.
    Lo, Y. (2010). Implementing Reflective Portfolios for Promoting Autonomous Learning among EFL College Students in Taiwan. Language Teaching Research, 14(1), 77-95.
    Long, C. J. (2003). Teaching Critical Thinking in Asian EFL Contexts: Theoretical Issues and Practical Applications.Proceedings of the 8th Conference of Pan-PacificAssociation of Applied Linguistics, 2003. Retrieved November 11, 2010 from http://www.paaljapan.org/resources/proceedings/PAAL8/pdf/pdf022.pdf.
    Lynch-Brown, C. & Tomlinson, C. M. (2005). Essentials of children’s literature (5th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education.
    MacKnight, C. B. (2000). Teaching critical thinking through online discussions. Educause Quarterly, 4, 38-41.
    Maiorana, V. P. (1992). Critical thinking across the curriculum: Building the analytical classroom. (ERIC DocumentReproduction Service No. ED 347511).
    Martikean, A. (1973). The levels of questioning and their effects upon student performance above knowledge level of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives (Research Paper No. E585, Division of Education). Gary: IndianaUniversity Northwest. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED091248)
    Martinez-Roldan, C. M., & Lopez-Robertson, J. M. (1999). Initiating literature circles in a first-grade bilingual classroom. Reading Teacher, 53(4), 270-281.
    McBride, R. E., Xiang, R., Wittenburg, D. & Shen, J. (2002) An Analysis of Preservice Teachers’ Disposition toward Critical Thinking: A Cross-cultural Perspective,” Asian-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 30, 131-140.
    McBride, R. E.; Xinag, P.; Wittenburg, D.; & Shen, J. (2002). An analysis of pre-service teachers’ dispositions toward critical thinking: a cross-cultural perspective. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 30(2), 131-140.
    Moore, J. L., & Marra, R. M. (2005). A comparative analysis of online discussion participation protocols. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 38(2), 191-212.
    Morgan, N., & Saxton, J. (1991). Teaching questioningand learning. London: Routledge.
    Mowat, D. (2000). Soapy’s Choice. New Yorkers Short Stories. Oxford Bookworm Library.Oxford University Press, 9-16.
    Mowat, D. (2000). Tildy’s Moment. New Yorkers Short Stories. Oxford Bookworm Library.Oxford University Press, 27-32.
    Norris, S. P., & Ennis, R. (1989). Evaluating critical thinking. Pacific Grove, California: Critical Thinking Press and Software.
    Oliviert, D. (1999). One Thousand Dollars. Best Short Stories of O. Henry. Easy Readers. Caves Bookstore Yohan Publications, 62-71.
    Oliviert, D. (1999). Witches’ Loaves. Best Short Stories of O. Henry. Easy Readers. Caves Bookstore Yohan Publications, 1-6.
    Patterson, S. R. (1993). Promoting critical thinking skills for fourth grade students through the use of children’s books. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, NovaUniversity, Sweden. (Eric Document Reproduction Service No.ED384441)
    Peterson, R, & Eeds, M. (1990). Grand conversations: Literature groups in action. NY: Scholastic.
    Pineda Baez, C. (2004). Critical Thinking in the EFL Classroom: The Search for a Pedagogical Alternative to Improve English Learning. Ikala: Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura, 9(15), 45-80.
    Pithers, P. T. (2000). Critical thinking in education: A review. Educational Research, 42(3), 237-249.
    Pitman, M. (1997). Literature circles. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED416503)
    Portland Public Schools (2004). Designing tasks to promote criticalthinking. Language and Culture Bulletin, 2(9).
    Rafik-Galea, S., & Nair, P. B. (2007). Enhancing ESL teacher trainees’ critical thinking skills through scaffolding. Pan-Pacific Association of AppliedLinguistics, 11(1), 99-113.
    Rosenblatt, L. M. (1978). The reader, the text, the poem: The transactional theory ofthe literary work. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
    Rosenblatt, L. M. (1995). Literature as exploration (5th ed.). New York, NY: MLA of America.
    Routman, R. (2000). Conversations: Strategies for teaching, learning, and evaluating. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Sai, M. & Hsu, J.Y. (2007). Multiple Intelligence Literature Circles: A JFL and an EFL Experience. The Proceedings of the 5th Hawaii International Conference onArts and Humanities (pp. 4398-4419). Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 495304).
    Sai, M., & Hsu, J. (2007). Multiple Intelligence literature circles: A JFL and EFL Experience. National Kaohsiung First University of Science & Technology (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED495304)
    Samules, S.J., & Farstrup, A. E. (1993). What research has to say about reading instruction (2nd ed.). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
    Scanlan, J. S. (2006). The effect of Richard Paul’s universal elements and standards of reasoning on twelfth grade composition. Unpublished master’s thesis, AlliantInternational University, California.
    Schlick Noe, K, L., & Johnson, N. J. (1999). Getting started with literature circles. MA: Christopher-Gordon Publishers.
    Schlick Noe, K. (2006). Literature circles Resource. Retrieved June 29, 2010. http://www.litcircles.org
    Shiau, J. C. (2010). Using Reciprocal Teaching to Develop Thinking in a Senior High EFL Classroom in Taiwan. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan.
    Shih, Y. H., et al. (2005). The Necklace. Far East English Reader for Senior High SchoolsBook 5. Taipei, Taiwan: Far East Co., Ltd.
    Short, K. (1993). Making connections across literature and life. In K. Holland, R. Hungerford, & S. Ernst (Ed.), Journeying: Children responding to literature. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Short, K. G & Burke, C. (1991). Creating curriculum: Teachers and students as a community of learners. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Short, K. G., & Klassen, C. (1993). Literature circles: Hearing children’s voices. In B. Cullinan (Ed.), Children’s voices: Talk in the classroom (pp. 66-85). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
    Siegel, H. (1988). Educating reason: Rationality, critical thinking, and education. New York: Routledge.
    Skilbeck, M. (1970). Dewey. London: The Macmillan Company.
    Sloan, G. D. (1991). The child as critic: Teaching literature in elementary and middle schools. New York: Teachers College Press.
    Stapleton, P. (2001). Assessing critical thinking in the writing of Japanese university students. Written Communication, 18(4), 506-548.
    Stapleton, P. (2002). Critical thinking in Japanese L2 writing: Rethinking tired constructs. ELT Journal, 56(3), 250-257.
    Stuart, B. J. (2007). After Twenty Years. Short Stories of O. Henry. Cosmos Culture. Darakwon Publishing Company, 86-101.
    Thomas, D. K. (1988). Why questions and why answers: Patterns and purposes. LanguageArts, 65, 552-556.
    Tillman, Y. R. (1994). Improving critical thinking skills in second graders throughinstruction and teacher-led discussion groups. Nova Southeastern University. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED373907)
    Tsui, L. (2002). Fostering critical thinking through effective pedagogy: Evidence from four institutional case studies. The Journal of Higher Education, 73(6), 740-763.
    Tung, C.A., & Chang, S.Y. (2009). Developing Critical Thinking through Literature Reading. Feng Chia Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 19, 287-317.
    Vojnovich, C. M. (1997). Improving student motivation in the secondary classroom through the use of critical thinking skills, cooperative learning techniques, and reflective journal writing. Unpublished master’s thesis, Saint Xavier University,Illinois.
    Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychologicalprocess. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Wood, K. D., Roser, N. L., & Martinez, M. (2001). Collaborative literacy: Lessons learned from literature. Reading Teacher, 55(2), 102-111.
    Woolfolk, A. (2004). Educational psychology. Boston: Pearson Education. Yang, M. (2006). A critical review of research on questioning in education: limitations of its positivistic basis. Asia Pacific Education Review, 7(2), 195-204.
    Wu, M. (2000). The study of epistemology on critical thinking instruction. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan.
    Yang, S. C., & Chung, T. Y. (2009). Experimental Study of Teaching Critical Thinking in Civic Education in Taiwanese Junior High School,British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 29–55
    Yang, Y. T. & Chou, H. A. (2008). Beyond Critical Thinking Skills: Investigating the Relationship between Critical Thinking Skills and Dispositions through Different Online Instructional Strategies, British Journal of Educational Technology, 39, 668-784.
    Yang, Y. T. C. (2008). A catalyst for teaching critical thinking in a large university class in Taiwan: asynchronous online discussions with the facilitation of teaching assistants. Educational Technology Research and Development, 56 (3), 241-264.
    Yang, Y.-T. C., Newby, T. J., & Bill, R. L. (2005). Using Socratic questioning to promote critical thinking skills through asynchronous discussion forums in distance learning environments. American Journal of Distance Education, 19(3), 163-181.
    Yeh, Y. C. (2004).Nurturing Reflective Teaching during Critical Thinking Instruction in Computer Stimulation Program.Computers and Education, 42(2), 181-194.
    Zhang, T., Gao, T., Ring, G., & Zhang, W. (2007). Using online discussion forums to assist a traditional English class. International Journal on E-Learning, 6(4), 623-643.
    Zieger, J. (2002). Literature circles. Teacher Net Gazette, 3(3). Retrieved January21, 2010, from http://teachers.net/gazette/MAR02/zeiger.html
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    英語教學碩士在職專班
    96951001
    101
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0969510012
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[英語教學碩士在職專班] 學位論文

    Files in This Item:

    File SizeFormat
    001201.pdf1869KbAdobe PDF969View/Open


    All items in 政大典藏 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.


    社群 sharing

    著作權政策宣告
    1.本網站之數位內容為國立政治大學所收錄之機構典藏,無償提供學術研究與公眾教育等公益性使用,惟仍請適度,合理使用本網站之內容,以尊重著作權人之權益。商業上之利用,則請先取得著作權人之授權。
    2.本網站之製作,已盡力防止侵害著作權人之權益,如仍發現本網站之數位內容有侵害著作權人權益情事者,請權利人通知本網站維護人員(nccur@nccu.edu.tw),維護人員將立即採取移除該數位著作等補救措施。
    DSpace Software Copyright © 2002-2004  MIT &  Hewlett-Packard  /   Enhanced by   NTU Library IR team Copyright ©   - Feedback