The aims of this study are twofold. First, we compare the free form and the combination [di + relational noun] (e.g. bawah versus di bawah). Second, we provide a quantitative comparison between pairs of antonymous free forms (e.g. bawah versus atas) and between the di counterparts (e.g. di bawah versus di atas). The analysis was carried out by comparing the number of corpus instances and dictionary senses, as well as the collocates in the left-one (L1) and right-one (R1) positions. For the contrast with and without di, it was found that all free forms were more frequent except for bawah. Regarding the contrast between pairs, bawah (but not atas) clearly represented the second part of the conceptual metaphor HAVING CONTROL OR FORCE IS UP; BEING SUBJECT TO CONTROL OR FORCE IS DOWN, while dalam and luar behaved dissimilarly, without many opposite meanings in use.
NUSA: Linguistic studies of languages in and around Indonesia, 57, 51-82