課後學生自主的時間能否自己自律繼續學習，是值得關注的議題。本研究欲瞭解學生從國中到高中自律學習發展情況，以台灣教育長期追蹤資料庫的 2,939 個追蹤樣本，進行潛在成長曲線模型分析。在本研究的假設模型中發現：兩性學生在自律學習的假設模型無顯著差異，而且國中高自律學習的學生到高中的自律學習成長有限；國中低自律學習的學生到高中自律學習成長幅度較大。至於學生家庭社經地位愈高、父母學校參與和接納的程度愈高，學生國中時期的自律學習情況會愈好；但是學生家庭社經地位愈高、父母學校參與程度愈高，對於學生國中到高中自律學習成長有限，至於父母接納則無顯著影響關係。另外，國中自律學習良好的學生，有較良好的分析能力；但是自律學習無法有效預測分析能力的成長情況。本研究將依據上述研究結果提出相關結論與建議以供參考。 Students self-regulating their learning after school is an important topic. This study examines the development of self-regulation learning (SRL) and analytical abilities using 2,939 samples from junior high schools and senior high schools. Data were collected from the Taiwan Education Panel Survey (TEPS). A latent growth curve model was employed to analyze the data. The analysis results are as follows: No gender differences exist regarding the development of SRL and analytical ability in both junior and senior high school students in Taiwan. Junior high school students with higher levels of SRL tend to make less SRL progress during senior high school, whereas students with lower SRL levels tend to make greater progress. Junior high school students with higher family socioeconomic status, greater parental involvement and acceptance, and superior SRL levels demonstrated less SRL progress in senior high school. Additionally, junior high school students with higher SRL levels tend to have greater analytical abilities. However, the SRL level of senior high school students could not accurately predict their analytical abilities. Based on these results, this study provides a number of conclusions and suggestions for practical applications and future research.