本研究的主要目的在發展一份適用於中小學的本土化批判思考能力測驗-「中小學批判思考技巧測驗，TCTS-PS，並建立常模。經預試及項目分析後，TCTS-PS共包含五個分測驗-辨認假設、推論、演繹、解釋及評鑑，共計24題。測驗中各題之難度指數為.37~.87，平均值為.66；鑑別指數為.25~.71，平均值為.46。信度及效度分析的結果顯示：TCTS-PS的試題難易適中，並具有良好的信度與效度。本研究除了發展「中小學批判思考技巧測驗」之外，也進一步以小學高年級學生578人、國中學生547人，共計1125人為研究對象，建立常模並考驗性別及年級的差異。研究結果發現：男女學生的批判思考能力並無顯著差異，而學生的批判思考能力有隨著年級的增加而增強的趨勢。 The purposes of this study were (a) to develop a test for measuring primary and secondary school students’critical-thinking ability-“The Test of Critical-thinking Skills for Primary and Secondary School Students , TCTS-PS” and (b) to establish a scoring norm for TCTS-PS. After the pretest and item analyses, TCTS-PS included 24 test items divided into the following five subtests-Recognition of Assumptions, Inferences, Deductions, Interpretations, and Evaluation of Arguments. Test items in TCTS-PS had an average difficulty index of .66 (ranged from .37 to .87 for each item) and an average discriminate index of .46 (ranged from .25 to .71 for each item). The results of reliability analyses and validity analyses revealed that TCTS-PS had a median level of difficulty as well as a satisfactory reliability and validity. Moreover, this study included 1125 students (578 five- and six-grade students and 547 junior high school students) to establish a scoring norm for TCTS-PS. Gender differences and grade differences on TCTS-PS were also analyzed. No gender differences were found. However, some grade differences showed in the analyses; the means displayed a trend that the higher the students' grade was, he better their critical-thinking ability was.