兒童壓力在近二十年來逐漸受到重視，但綜觀這方面的研究，仍有兩點缺失：一 是兒童壓力源的實證研究與理論家的模型未能做有效的結合；二是兒童壓力的研究大多承 襲成人模式，未能突顯「發展模式」的重要性。本研究為一兒童壓力源的文獻探討，其宗旨 在一方面找出一個最適切的模型來歸納分析文獻，讓兒童壓力源的探討焦點更清晰；一方面 討論「發展模式」在兒童壓力中可能扮演的角色，和仔細檢視最新的發展模型。結論中要提 醒讀者的是：(1) 多數研究都集中在主要生活事件，反而忽略一般兒童所關心的日常生活小 困擾；(2) 除了壓力源本身，壓力記憶的再觸發和間接壓力源也是可能的壓力來源，值得主 意；(3) 兒童壓力應該有正、負兩種發展觀，而它對兒童造成的是正面或負面的影響，則取 決於下列因素：兒童本身如何看待壓力源、兒童因應壓力所能憑藉資源的多寡、以及兒童對 事件努力的意願程度。 The topic of stress in childhood is getting a lot of attention in recent two decades, however, there are problems in this area of research. On the one hand, empirical studies and theoretical models on childhood stressors are not effici ently integrated; on the other hand the importance of "deve lopmental model" is overlooked. The objective of the study was to take the perspective of stress as a stimulus and to provide the overall picture of sources of stress in childhood by organizing them into a stress model. The study also seeked to explore the essence of the "developmental model "as opposed to the "disease model" in child stress discussion. Finally, this paper reminded readers:1)most researchers focus on the discussion of major life events rather than daily hassels which concern regular children;2)childhood stress derives not only from stressor itself, but also from stress reminder and secondary stresses; And 3) ,not all stressful life events result in dysfunction or disorder. Teachers and therapists have to understand whether astressful event is related to positive growth or dysfunciton must be the result of other mediating factors, including the meaning an event holds for an individual, his or her resources for coping with the event, and efforts made to cope with the event.