態度的研究一直是社會心理學家相當關心的主題之一，而理性行動理論建構態度的方式不但引起他們的注意，而且也造成不少的爭議，尤其是結果信念與結果評價之計分方式。本研究係以選擇方法相近的四份研究為資料，按照研究設計與實施步驟，應用適當的統計方法，以進行量表測量特性與計分方式對於信念、態度之關係的影響探討。結果發現對於信念、態度之關係的最主要影響因素為結果信念與結果評價之計分方式，其次則是量表之建構效度與信度。至於其中在量表之計分方式上，結果信念與結果評價採取單極×單極或單極×雙極這兩種計分法均比採取雙極×雙極計分法，對於信念、態度之關係的影響來得大，然而前兩者並沒有明顯的差異。在量表之因素結構上，量表為雙向度比單向度對於信念、態度之關係的影響來得大。在量表之信度上，態度量表之信度對於信念、態度之關係的影響為正向，而結果信念暨結果評價量表之信度則否。再者，計分方式對於信念、態度之關係的影響不致於會受到量表測量特性所左右。因此，為了提昇信念與態度之預測效度，研究者在探討這兩者之關係時應特別注意量表測量特性與計分方式之影響。 Social psychologists have long been interested in the research on attitude. The attitude structure of the reasoned action model has attracted their attention, and they have also raised questions, above all, about the scoring system for beliefs and evaluations. The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of scale psychometric characteristics and scoring systems on the relationships between beliefs and attitudes toward the behavior. It is found that the scoring system is the most influential factor on the correlation between beliefs and attitudes, and the scale psychometric characteristics are the next. After adjusting for the influence of scale psychometric characteristics, it is found that the scoring procedure by using unipolar for beliefs and unipolar/ bipolar for evaluations shows a significantly higher correlation between beliefs and attitudes than that by using bipolar for both beliefs and evaluations. The bi-dimensional construct for the scale of beliefs and evaluations shows a significantly higher correlation between beliefs and attitudes than the uni-dimensional construct for that, and so is for the scale of attitudes. The reliability of the attitude scale shows a significantly positive correlation between beliefs and attitudes；however, the reliability of the belief scale does not. Again, the influence of scoring systems on the relationships between beliefs and attitudes is not determined by the scale psychometric characteristics. Therefore, it is very necessary for us to pay much attention to the influence of scale psychometric characteristics and scoring systems on the relationships between beliefs and attitudes toward the behavior in order to improve their predictive validity.
教育與心理研究, 23(上),1-23 Journal of Education & Psychology