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    Title: 韓語第二人稱代名詞實際使用限制硏究-從社會性文法至文化性文法-
    Other Titles: A Study on the Restricted Use of the Second Personal Pronoun in Korean -From the Social Grammar to the Cultural Grammar-
    Authors: 扈貞煥
    Ho, Jung-Hwan
    Keywords: 韓語語法;韓語第二人稱代名詞;稱謂;社會性文法;文化性文法
    Korean pronoun;the second personal pronoun;social grammar;cultural grammar
    Date: 2009-06
    Issue Date: 2016-09-10 14:07:01 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 外國人在學習韓語時,常完全依賴教科書文法的說明來學習,然而韓語當中的第二人稱代名詞,常使學習者碰到不符合實際對話的窘境。我們可以在實際對話中發現韓國人極為重視社會地位與階級,因此韓國人實際在對話中指稱對方時,常與外國人所學的大不相同。簡而言之,韓文實際的語言狀況中,對於該尊待的聽者來說,並沒有第二人稱代名詞的存在。雖然對於不須尊待的話者,可以較為自由使用‘너’來代稱,但對於成年人之間的對話來說‘너’則是忌諱使用的。那麼對於這種無法使用的第二人稱,則需要利用第三人稱稱謂來取代,這部分使用上的繁瑣就連韓國人都深感困難。筆者試圖透過此論文對此提出一套說明體系,本研究針對實際語言應用當中第二人稱不存在的情形,以及使用第三人稱名詞稱謂代替的語言擴張(language inflation)現象,利用社會語言的規範與文化思考的範疇加以定義為社會性文法與文化性文法。\r 以社會性文法來看,稱謂體系的主因可從權威(power, 序列)和紐帶(solidarity, 親和力)間來決定。在對話開始時,一旦彼此間的尊待關係確定後,就無法利用第二人稱代名詞,而是必須找出最適當的第三人稱名詞稱謂予以代稱。共同體社會當中,尊待對方的稱謂自然會往極大化的方向擴產,同時衍生出各種稱謂。此外,在文化性文法的部分,如果我們將文化性文法概念化為貫通社會成員行為的共通思考方式,那麼在韓文當中,對於應該尊待的對象來說,實際上並無第二人稱。我們可以利用韓國的家族主義概念來說明這種語言現象。另一方面,‘我們(우리)’意識也完整反映在代稱第二的第三人稱社會統稱語當中。在需要強化利害關係或親和力的狀況下,韓國人必定使用‘언니’‘오빠’‘어머님’等類的家族稱謂。這是話者欲將聽者包含到‘我們’的家族範圍中,話者相較於理性更使用了感情的訴求,以營造出最有利於己的狀況,這些可以說是在韓國文化的意識形態當中所產生的語言習慣。\r 筆者撰寫此論文深感語言應順應時代變遷而不斷進化,但對於21世紀的韓國人來說,在圓滑的交流溝通上,使用第二人稱代名詞仍為一絆腳石,現今使用中的敬語體系未曾間斷過。不過能夠無顧忌的使用第二人稱代名詞,在語言生活上實際上有其必要性,但其可行性仍為另一可議之問題。
    The Korean language makes extensive use of speech levels and honorifics in its grammar. Korean personal pronouns also change depending on the social distinction between the speaker and the person or persons spoken to, which pose some difficulty to Korean language learners. Among Korean pronouns, this study focuses on the usage of the second personal pronoun. The reason for this study is that those who learn Korean as a foreign language often find themselves to be in an awkward position since the grammatically correct specific second pronouns in Korean are literally not used in conversation. Instead a variety of the third nouns, that is, the appropriate title as a form of address are used, resulting in ‘language inflation.’ Its phenomenon states that repertoire of applicable third nouns, especially polite and honorific terms of address expand, and this study necessarily looks at the social and cultural context to propose one explanation as to the changing pattern from the second personal pronoun to the third noun. Through an examination of recent research literature, this study finds one explanation from the angles of social grammar that there are two main factors influencing the shift from the second personal pronoun to thethird noun: ‘power’ and ‘solidarity’. An examination of studies in connection with the cultural grammar reveals that the shift comes from ‘weism’, with its origin from ‘familism’. From a psychological point of view, familism is a cluster of attitudes that emphasizes the relevance of the family for personal and social life, which can be seen from the frequent usage of kinship terms such as ‘언니’, ‘오빠’, ‘어머니’, even to address someone who is not family.
    Relation: 外國語文研究, 10, 5-29
    Foreign language studies
    Data Type: article
    Appears in Collections:[外國語文研究 ] 期刊論文

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