This research examines how dependence on smartphones for various goals at work, such as understanding, orientation, and communication, relates to employees’ job performance, workplace social capital, and smartphone addiction. Data were collected from a survey of 527 workers in urban China. Regression results indicated that dependence on smartphones for understanding and communication at work has no influence on individuals’ job performance. Only dependence on smartphones for orientation was positively associated with their job performance. Dependence on smartphones for communication has positive association with employees’ workplace social capital. Most interestingly, we found that dependence on smartphones for understanding and orientation was positively associated with smartphone addiction; however, dependence on smartphones for communication has no influence on smartphone addiction. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.