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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/12185

    Title: 「廉價外勞」論述的政治經濟學批判
    Other Titles: A Critique from Marxist Political Economy on the "Cheap Foreign Labor" Discourse
    Authors: 劉梅君
    Keywords: 政治經濟學;廉價外勞;產業後備軍
    Political economy;Cheap foreigh labor;Industrial reserve army
    Date: 2000-06
    Issue Date: 2008-12-02 15:15:37 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 既有外勞文獻,大多數是出自經濟學或管理學的觀點,因此, 外勞議題被視為市場供需或價格的問題,或被視為是某種潛在的 危險,因而需要加以管理。這樣的觀察視野缺乏人本的考察,且 易簡化外勞出現在台灣的政治經濟意涵。一般認為外勞的大量出 現與其廉價有關,然其何以能廉價;以及在廉價之外,外勞對台 灣的生產關係,具有何種生產政治的作用?本文循著馬克思的政 治經濟學批判脈絡,深化既有的「廉價」論述。 外勞之所以「廉價」,是相對於國內勞工的平均工資而言, 但若比較基準是東南亞或中國大陸這些地區,則目前以勞基法「 基本工資」的水準而言,顯然就不是那麼的「廉價」了。這裡凸 顯出的一個問題是,外勞的「廉價」與否,牽涉到的是不同經濟 體的社會發展程度。「基本工資」在台灣,之所以較難獲得勞工 的青睞,絕不是以台灣勞動者「好逸惡勞」這樣具有道德性的評 論可以解釋清楚,而是這個工資基準要支持起勞工家庭生活,有 其客觀上的困難。弔詭的是,同樣的「基本工資」卻能吸引外勞 爭相前來,也正是因為該工資水準,在支持外勞在其母國的家庭 生活上,是綽綽有餘。因此,台灣外勞的「廉價」其實是建立在 外勞的「生產」與「社會再生產」分離的基礎上:外勞在台灣的 「生產」所創造出的剩餘,其中一小部份作為工資給付,作為外 勞匯回母國維持其「社會再生產」所需。 外勞對台灣資本家的作用,不僅在於其「廉價」,更在於其 對生產關係的作用。在外勞政策下,作為一種「不自由」且「即 期」商品的外勞,是大有助益對生產關係的穩定,並嚇阻任何對 資本的挑釁企圖,完成資本社會關係的再生產。
    This paper is to deepen our understanding of an apparent paradox of the labor market, the coexistence of labor shortage and umemployment. Why local labors are left jobless at the same time that labor shortage emerges as a high issue? Being cheap is a commonly suggested excuse for the high demand for foreign labors. A critique of political economy from Marxist tradition provides an insightful clue to the reasons why foreign labors are mushroomed in the past ten to twenty years. The separation of production and social reproduction, an institutional result of foreign labor policy, explains why foreign labors could remain cheap at a level unacceptable to local workers. But other than being cheap, foreign labors serve socio-political purposes that did not receive attention among the existing literature in Taiwan. To be specific, foreign labors help stablize the social relation of production and further aggravate the already tilting imbalance of worker-employer relationship that leads to the even more silence of the labors. This aspect of socio-political implications is the key to the reproduction of capitalist production.
    Relation: 台灣社會研究季刊 38,59-90
    Data Type: article
    Appears in Collections:[勞工研究所] 期刊論文

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