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    Title: 以跨文化角度分析台灣英語學習雜誌
    Content analysis of the English learning magazines for Taiwanese learners from intercultural perspectives
    Authors: 林瑜芳
    Lin, Yu-Fang
    Contributors: 黃怡萍
    Huang, Yi-Ping
    林瑜芳
    Lin, Yu-Fang
    Keywords: 跨文化溝通
    英語學習雜誌
    文化內容分析
    補充教材
    Intercultural communicative competence
    Supplemental material
    Cultural contents
    English learning magazine
    Content analysis
    Date: 2019
    Issue Date: 2019-05-02 14:41:19 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 在眾多語言學習情境下,教科書是學生接觸文化內容的主要來源。過去以跨文化角度評估在台灣所選用的教科書之相關研究顯示,若使用多元的教材,將能幫助台灣學生有更多的機會接觸多樣的跨文化內容。事實上,近年在台灣很多的高中學校也有將英語學習雜誌納入課程的趨勢。然而,只有少數的研究深入探討這些英語學習雜誌的文化內容。本研究旨在以跨文化角度分析三本較常在台灣高中學校使用的英語學習雜誌。這三本雜誌都主張文化的重要性,並把文化內容融入在月刊中。本研究使用Moran (2001) 的「五個文化層面」以及Chao (2011) 的「主要文化類別」這兩個架構來分析這三個系列雜誌的正文、問題討論以及圖片部分。本研究分析範疇為三個系列雜誌於2017年出的全部共36本月刊。
    分析結果顯示,三個系列雜誌都在正文中包含了文化的各個層面(物品:58.35%,行為:41.14%,觀點:62.82%,群體:32.19%,人:30.81%),在圖片部分則都只能夠呈現代表特定文化的物品(48.71%)以及人物(35.80%)。另外,三個系列雜誌的正文都涵蓋了多種的文化類別(英美文化:39.76%,國際文化:38.90%,文化溝通:30.18%),但是台灣在地文化依舊很少在雜誌中被提及,只佔了11.02%。而圖片大多呈現的則是不屬於特定文化的內容(37.69%)。儘管如此,這三個系列的英語學習雜誌依舊成功將不同層面的文化融到月刊中,進而激發學習者的文化意識。
    分析結果亦顯示三個系列雜誌都含有一個共同的潛在課程:西方國家或是英美文化比其他文化優越。所以當學習者在使用這三個系列雜誌時,他們可能會讚揚英美文化而看低其他文化。而在其中一系列雜誌還發現,被選用的國際新聞可能在潛移默化之下,強化學生對某些國家的刻板印象。另外,這本雜誌提供的不是開放式問題或是意思上的交涉練習,而是提供回答例句,這樣可能會讓學生認為在跨文化溝通時需要遵循特定回答方式。這樣的呈現模式可能可以協助學生回答問題,但也可能讓學生認為在跨文化溝通時需要遵循某些規則。以上這些不同的潛在課程都有可能影響學生對於不同文化的態度。
    基於上述發現,本研究建議老師在選用英語學習雜誌時應考量每一系列雜誌的特點並且因應學生的需求增減內容。本研究也建議雜誌的設計者,圖片的選用應與文章所提及之文化內容相呼應,並且考量涵蓋不同類別的文化內容,而不偏重任何特定文化,而文化比較與反思的練習也可以融合到正文或圖片之中,讓學生有更多學習的機會。
    In many foreign language contexts, textbook is the major source of exposure to cultural contents. Prior research evaluated textbooks selected and used in Taiwan from intercultural perspectives and proposed the idea that by using diverse teaching materials, learners would have more opportunities to engage in intercultural contents. In fact, there is a trend of using English learning magazines in English classes among high schools in Taiwan. Yet, few studies have done thorough analysis of the cultural contents on the English learning magazines. The current study intended to examine three popular English learning magazines used among high schools in Taiwan from intercultural perspectives. These three magazines all claimed to have integrated cultural elements in the articles. The scope of the analysis included texts, discussion questions, and pictures in 36 volumes collected from the year of 2017. The cultural contents were analyzed based on two coding schemes: Moran’s the Five Dimensions of Culture (2001) and Chao’s the Main Categories of Culture (2011).
    The results disclosed that while cultural dimensions were found to strike a balance in the reading texts in the three magazines (products: 58.35%, practices: 41.14%, perspectives: 62.82%, communities: 32.19%, and persons: 30.81%), most of the pictures in the magazines portrayed cultural creations (48.71%) and people (35.80%). As for cultural categories, the reading texts in all the magazines contained a variety of cultures (target culture: 39.76%, international culture: 38.90%, intercultural interaction: 30.81%) but local culture still stayed as minority (11.02%) and that most
    of the pictures were related to culture-general knowledge (37.69%). Nevertheless, the attempt to incorporate different cultural dimensions and cultural categories to arouse learners’ cultural awareness had been successfully made among all the magazines.
    Drawn upon the findings, it was found that all the three English learning magazines conveyed one common hidden curriculum, which was western countries or target cultures were superior to other cultures. Therefore, when using the three magazines learners might praise target culture and look down upon other cultures. It was also found in one of the magazines that the selection of international news might unconsciously perpetuate stereotypes toward particular countries among learners. In addition, rather than open-ended questions or meaning negotiation activities, this series of magazine provided learners with sample sentences that might lead learners to think that they were expected to answer in certain ways during intercultural interaction. These hidden messages might implicitly or explicitly affect learners’ attitude toward different cultures.
    Based on above findings, it is suggested that teachers’ selection of the magazines should concern the strengths and weaknesses of each magazine and that teachers should adapt the contents to fit learners’ needs. It is also suggested that magazine designers should pay attention to the selection of pictures, so that the pictures are correlated with the reading text. Designers could also consider the balanced distribution of different cultures and the combination of intercultural interactions in reading texts or pictures, so that learners would have more learning opportunities.
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    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    英國語文學系
    1055510081
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G1055510081
    Data Type: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/THE.NCCU.ENG.006.2019.A09
    Appears in Collections:[英國語文學系] 學位論文

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