「文革」前的中共政治中，身兼黨第一副主席與國家主席的劉少奇與黨的中央總書記鄧小平同為毛澤東重用的領導人，兩人長期受毛委託在「一線」主持黨國的中央日常工作。著眼於對方與毛澤東的密切關係，劉少奇對鄧小平另眼相看，鄧小平則對劉少奇維持敬重與支持。在中共重大決策與政策上，劉、鄧之間少有歧異，因為只要毛澤東表明態度，兩人皆唯命是從。然在摸索整治「大躍進」後的經濟困難上，劉、鄧默契合作，共助情勢轉危為安；兩人對「社會主義教育運動」走向的看法，則存有要而不顯的差異。劉、鄧在「文革」前政治運作的往來中，兩人在「一線」內雖是上、下級的工作關係，但形成「信任—尊重」的互動模式。毛澤東雖在「文革」中決定將劉少奇與鄧小平一併打倒，但或因劉、鄧所居位置與各自對毛採行策略的不同，毛在對待兩人上乃有所區別。 Before the Cultural Revolution, Head of State and first Party Vice-Chairman, Liu Shaoqi and Party General Secretary, Deng Xiaoping, were both in Mao Zedong’s good graces, and entrusted by him to handle the Party centre’s daily affairs. Mao was a crucial factor affecting Liu and Deng’s interaction. Deng showed respect and support for Liu based on the perception that Liu was Mao’s successor; Liu also highly valued Deng due to his special relationship with Mao. In most cases Liu and Deng had similar views of important Chinese Communist Party policies, and would follow Mao without hesitation when he expressed his views explicitly. Liu and Deng worked together to successfully figure out ways to cope with the economic difficulties that occurred in the wake of the Great Leap Forward. However, there was some important but easily overlooked divergence between their ideas about how to run the Socialism Education Movement. Nevertheless, within the so-called First Front leadership, Liu and Deng had a good mutual working relationship resulting in mutual trust and respect despite their superior and subordinate status. In addition, although Liu and Deng were purged simultaneously after the Cultural Revolution. Mao treated them in very different ways. Deng was much luckier than Liu who was not only expelled from the Party but also persecuted to death. Their different political fates may be related to their different positions in the First Front and the different strategies they adopted when they interacted with a suspicious Mao.
國立政治大學歷史學報, 34, 115-164 The Journal of History, 34, 115-164