日本的不當勞動行為制度從創立至今已逾六十年，近年來因為不當勞動行為事件的審查期間過長，以及勞動委員會所作之命令在撤銷訴訟裏被法院撤銷比率過高等問題，受到許多批評。為讓不當勞動行為制度能發揮原來所預期的機能，日本在二○○四年對勞動組合法進行大規模的修法，修正內容遍及勞動委員會的體制、不當勞動行為之審查程序與和解等相關規定。鑑於我國近年來在行政院勞工委員會所提出的工會法等勞動三法修正草案中，有導入不當勞動行為制度之變革，本文擬對對日本之制度的最新動向作介紹，藉以作為我國將來修法之參考。 The Labor Relations Commission (LRC) has been playing an important role in adjusting labor relations and remedying unfair labor practices since 1946 in Japan. Nevertheless, the LRC has also faced many problems. In particular, the delay of case-handling and a high rate of judgments canceling orders against employers need reconsideration. In light of these problems, the Labor Union Act was amended in 2004. The main purpose of the amendment of the Labor Union Act is the speed-up of case-handing and the proper reforming of fact-finding proceedings. Meanwhile, in recent years, the Council of Labor Affairs (CLA) in Taiwan has pushed for amendments to the major labor laws, including the Labor Union Act, the Collective Agreements Act, and the Settlement of Labor Disputes Act, which would encourage cooperative and collective bargaining and deter unfair employer and union labor practices. These amendments would establish an administrative agency to regulate unfair labor practices. This paper aims to introduce the Amendment of the Labor Union Act in Japan, indicate some problems associated with relief for unfair labor practices in Taiwan, and provide some feasible suggestions.