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    政大機構典藏 > 教育學院 > 教育學系 > 學位論文 >  Item 140.119/116125
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/116125


    Title: 回首向前,轉念成春:反芻思考、未來時間觀與寬恕之關係
    Looking back to look forward, blooming life in second thought: Relationships among rumination, future time perspective, and forgiveness
    Authors: 陳玉樺
    Chen, Yu Hua
    Contributors: 余民寧
    Yu, Min Ning
    陳玉樺
    Chen, Yu Hua
    Keywords: 反芻思考
    未來時間觀
    寬恕
    特質寬恕
    Rumination
    Future time perspective
    Forgiveness
    Dispositional forgiveness
    Date: 2018
    Abstract: 寬恕是一種跨文化人類共通的美德、是一種正向的心理特質,一種真正的生命智慧。因其有益於人際和諧、幸福感與身心健康,寬恕在近年來成為心理學所關注的議題。本研究旨在探究反芻思考、未來時間觀與寬恕之現況,以及反芻思考與未來時間觀如何影響寬恕的建構,藉以深入瞭解反芻思考、未來時間觀與寬恕之關係。

    本研究採用問卷調查法,以「多向度反芻焦點量表」、「未來時間態度量表」與「特質寬恕量表」為研究工具,研究對象為20歲以上成人共1,413位。所得有效問卷資料經描述統計、多變量變異數分析、區別分析、結構方程式模型等統計方法處理,研究發現如下:

    1.20歲以上成人之反芻思考、未來時間觀與特質寬恕現況尚佳。

    2.不同背景變項之成人在反芻思考整體及其分向度上有部分差異。
    (1)女性在「情緒焦點反芻」與「意義焦點反芻」上之得分顯著高於男性。
    (2)高齡者的反芻思考整體與各向度之得分明顯較低。

    3.不同背景變項之成人在未來時間觀整體及其分向度上有部分差異。
    (1)成人早期(20-30歲)與高齡者(60歲以上)在「未來時間觀點」沒有顯著差異,高齡者在「未來目標價值」與「對未來的準備與行動」上則顯著高於20-30歲之成人。
    (2)年長、高教育水準、已婚且有宗教信仰者,有較佳的未來時間觀。

    4.不同背景變項之成人在特質寬恕整體及其分向度上有部分差異。
    (1)男性在「寬恕命運」上之得分顯著高於女性。
    (2)男性、年長、高教育水準、已婚且有宗教信仰者,有較高的寬恕傾向。

    5.探討不同類型反芻思考與未來時間觀、特質寬恕之關係,研究發現:情緒焦點與評價焦點此兩種類型反芻思考,與未來時間觀、特質寬恕呈負相關;而意義焦點反芻與未來時間觀、特質寬恕呈正相關。

    6.未來時間觀在反芻思考與特質寬恕間扮演中介角色,亦即,未來時間觀在情緒焦點反芻思考、評價焦點反芻思考與未來時間觀、特質寬恕之間有部分中介效果,在意義焦點反芻思考與未來時間觀、特質寬恕之間有完全中介效果。

    本研究根據上述研究發現,分別對寬恕教育、諮商輔導提出建議,以作為教育工作者及後續研究之參考。
    Forgiveness is a kind of cross-cultural universal virtue of human, positive psychological strength, and authentic wisdom of life. Forgiveness has become an important topic of psychological researches in last decades, due to the benefits of interpersonal harmony, well-being, physical and mental health. The study aimed to investigate the current condition of the adults in Taiwan of their rumination, future time perspective, and dispositional forgiveness, and furthermore addressed the relationships among these variables.

    The present study adopted the questionnaire investigation, comprising “Multidimensional Focused Rumination Scale”, “Attitude toward Future Time Scale”, and “Dispositional Forgiveness Scale” was conducted. Participants were 1,413 adults aged 20 and over in Taiwan. The effective data based on the questionnaire were then analyzed by using the descriptive statistics, MANOVA, discriminant analysis, structural equation modeling and bootstrapping. The findings were summarized as follows:

    1.The present condition of Taiwan aged 20 and over adults’ rumination, future time perspective, and dispositional forgiveness was generally fine.

    2.In terms of rumination, gender and age had a significant difference in overall rumination and its dimensions.
    I.The female participants had higher “emotion-focused rumination” and “meaning-focused rumination” scores than the male participants.
    II.The elder participants reported less ruminative thinking than other age groups.

    3.In terms of future time perspective, age, educational level, marital status and religion had a significant difference in overall future time perspective and its dimensions, while gender had no significant difference.
    I.There is no difference between younger and elder participants on “the perception of future time”, however, the elder participants reported higher “the valence of future goal” and “preparation and action for the future” than younger participants.
    II.The elder, high educated, married and religious believer, had better future time perspective.

    4.In terms of dispositional forgiveness, gender, age, educational level, marital status and religion had a significant difference in overall dispositional forgiveness and its dimensions.
    I.The male participants had higher “forgiveness of fate” scores than the female participants.
    II.The male, elder, high educated, married and religious believer had a strong tendency to forgive.

    5.In terms of different kind of rumination relate to future time perspective and dispositional forgiveness: Emotion-focused rumination and evaluation-focused rumination were negatively related to future time perspective and dispositional forgiveness, while meaning-focused rumination was positively related to future time perspective and dispositional forgiveness.

    6.Future time perspective mediated the relationship between the rumination and the forgiveness. Furthermore, future time perspective partly mediated the relationship between the emotion-focused rumination and the dispositional forgiveness, partly mediated the relationship between the evaluation-focused rumination and the dispositional forgiveness, and completely mediated the relationship between the meaning-focused rumination and the dispositional forgiveness.

    According to the above findings, this study proposes suggestions for forgiveness education, counseling and guidance, and future studies.
    Description: 博士
    國立政治大學
    教育學系
    97152514
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0971525143
    Appears in Collections:[教育學系] 學位論文

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