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    Title: 退化、生命與倫理
    Other Titles: Degeneration, Life and Ethics
    Authors: 邱彥彬
    Contributors: 國立政治大學英國語文學系
    行政院國家科學委員會
    Keywords: 語文;退化;生命;倫理
    Date: 2011
    Issue Date: 2012-11-16
    Abstract: 生命與死亡的辯證,是自由主義的生命政治最引人非議之處,也是思索如何超越生命政治、打開生死交纏的糾結時必然面對的課題。班雅民曾於《拱廊街計畫》中提示以「清醒透明」(sober transparency)作為從19 世紀的「交互混雜」(interpenetration)中甦醒過來的途徑:「今天的通關密語不是交纏而是透明(啊!科比意)」(M1a,4)。換句話說,對班雅民而言,從19 世紀內外空間交互滲透如劇院包廂的拱廊街,一直到20 世紀科比意(Le Corbusier)以透明落地窗取代封閉磚牆的撒扶以別墅(Villa Savoy),與其說是一部西方近代建築的發展史,還不如說是一條救贖路徑的提示,擺脫既是… 又是/ 既不是…也非的否定(negative)辯證邏輯,邁向毫不拐彎抹角、扭曲遮掩的肯定(affirmative)揭露的一條解放道路。在生命政治的治理下,生命已經不再站在死亡的對立面,也不再具備抵拒、否定死亡、療癒死亡傷口的超越力量。當生命已然成為一個生死糾纏的內在性平面,任何企圖超越平面的否定踐作或論述都有被平面吸附的危險時,究竟如何才能在生命平面上,而非平面外,解開生命與死亡的辯證糾結?究竟活物、裸命、或聖/剩人等揭示生死交纏的歷史思像,本身如何超越在概念上對生命政治的否定批判,進而對倫理或解放政治帶來積極的肯定意義?本二年期計畫擬定從班雅民的〈暴力批判〉出發,來思索班雅民的提問。第一年的計畫將針對〈暴力批判〉中政治與生命同時退化的議題,重建退化論述的系譜,闡明生命政治中充滿否定性的生死辯證本是退化的症狀。既然生命與政治的退化是問題根源,將生命灌注到弱化的政治當中顯然是一條可以擺脫生死辯證的道路。第二年的計畫將以滿注生命的政治為思考核心,除了追隨班雅民的腳步,正視這樣的解決方案可能隱含的危險,並肯定班雅民對神聖暴力與神秘暴力的區分具有高度的生命政治意義之外,同時也計畫將巴迪烏的基進倫理觀帶入,彰顯班雅民分區辨神聖暴力與神秘暴力的倫理意涵,以期在滿山遍野一片逢大敘事必反的生命政治聲浪中,重新思索一種可以真正對內在性的生命平面進行裂解的另類超越性。
    In Convolute M, Walter Benjamin sings a paean to Le Corbusier for his precipitating the consummation of the 19th century covered arcades: “Today, the watchword is not entanglement but transparency. (Le Corbusier!)” (M1a,4). Sweeping though it has often been felt to be, this generalization is not so much an observation about the change in the architectonic method, as a pointer on how to break free from the biopolitical regime. This paean, in short, is Benjamin’s conception of redemption in a nutshell. Just as the convoluted entanglement characteristic of the architectonic composition of arcades finally gives way to Le Corbusierean transparency, so the dialectical intertwining of biopolitics and thanatopolitics should be decoupled in order to restore life and politics their affirmative character. This two-year project will be started in the first year with the biological and political degeneration as analyzed in Benjamin’s “Critique of Violence.” This seminal essay has tenaciously oriented our studies on the passing of biopolitics into thanatopolitics, but the issues of degeneration has never been explored in their depths and researched in all their complexity. Read in conjunction with Georges Sorel’s Reflections on Violence, Carl Schmitt’s Political Theology, and Hannah Arendt’s The Human Condition, Benjamin’s essay will be proven able to pin down with striking precision the causes of biopolitical negativity, effectively attributing the life-and-death dialectics to the global degeneration of life and politics under the regime of biopolitical governance. When the entanglement of biopolitics and thanatopolitics is understood in its proper dimension, some of the groundwork for unraveling the lethal knot will be laid. Vitalization of the weakening politics is widely held among some contemporary intellectuals (Carl Schmitt is a classic example) as the efficacious remedy for biopolitical degeneration. Despite its prima facie viability, Benjamin has never looked upon this supposed cure-all without apprehension. He takes us to the nub of the matter when he re-routes the line of argument away from Schmitt, tracing instead the fine line between “mythic violence” and “divine violence,” that is, between the vitalized politics which is genuinely affirmative, and the vitalized politics which is readily susceptible to the life-and-death dialectics. In the second year of this project, I will follow in Benjamin’s footsteps to revisit the biopolitical import of this delicate differentiation. Further on, I will seek to incorporate Alain Badiou’s radical reformulation of ethics to substantiate this distinction, also in the hope that the ethical significance of “divine violence” can be brought into sharper relief and put to shame the biopolitical incredulity toward grand narratives.
    Relation: 基礎研究
    學術補助
    研究期間:10008~ 10107
    研究經費:575仟元
    Data Type: report
    Appears in Collections:[英國語文學系] 國科會研究計畫

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