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    政大機構典藏 > 教育學院 > 教育學系 > 學位論文 >  Item 140.119/119952
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/119952


    Title: 教育的存有向度: 梅洛龐蒂存在現象學的人文意涵及教育蘊義
    Ontological Dimension of Education: The Implication of the Humanity and Education of Maurice Merleau-Ponty's Existential Phenomenology
    Authors: 曾雅麟
    Tseng, Ya-Lin
    Contributors: 蔡錚雲
    Tsai, Cheng-Yun
    曾雅麟
    Tseng, Ya-Lin
    Keywords: 教育
    存有向度
    梅洛龐蒂
    存在現象學
    人文意涵
    模糊性
    教育肉身
    纏繞哲學
    Education
    Ontological dimension
    Merleau-Ponty
    Existential phenomenology
    The implication of the humanity
    Ambiguity
    The flesh of education
    A philosophy of the chaism
    Date: 2018
    Issue Date: 2018-09-03 15:59:18 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 雖然專業知識的現代分工已是當今社會的研究指標,但根據論題, 本文將反其道的以跨領域的方式來處理。無疑的,教育的問題離不開人的問題,而人的問題在本文的論述中,它關乎的是存在的問題。於是在一章時,我們從「存在問題」的脈絡以及為何是現象學去提出有關存在問題的看法,這自然是因為現象學可以帶領我們觸及到人存在問題的核心。進而從現象學到現象學心理學的過渡中,在第二章時我們提到了海德格和胡塞爾的世紀交手,並在梅洛龐蒂的「存在現象學」中以本質放回存在來回應一個現象學但卻是現象學的各自表述 。可是當談及存在問題時,它其實是深刻地指向他人與自我的共同世界,故在第三章時,我們必須回到生活世界才能弄清楚人所形構出來的人文世界。有別於傳統意涵下的人文主義,當存在主義在二次大戰後取代前者時,作為西方馬克思主義的第一人,梅洛龐蒂不但和沙特所主張的意識型態交鋒,遂在現實世界中發展出和後者不同的具體 「人文意涵」。可是人文世界的具體意涵並不在任何文本定義中,從存在現象學來看,由於人是情境中的主體,因此,人勢必會遇到現實情境中的倫理問題,且具體世界的人文意涵須經由情境中的實踐行動,即「情境倫理」才能被有效說明, 故在第四章以情境倫理作為架橋,我們也間接地拋出了教育中的棘手問題,即現行教育中被邊緣化的少年處境及教育進場協助時必須考慮的現實條件,是以,探討人存在的根本問題,它並不是心理學或是精神分析意義下的人的主體,也不是啟蒙以降或是精神科學中的人文意涵,當然,它與人文科學中所談的主體意涵也不同,故在第五章時,本文的壓軸是在走完前篇各章後才能蘊生出的「教育意涵」,那是從可見現象所反顯出來不可見的「存有向度」,換言之,當我們一昧往前發展現代教育時,什麼才是教育的原初經驗處?什麼才是我們發展現代教育義無反顧的起點?從這點來看,教育的可能性是圍繞現實條件中自然緣起而不是從理想的人類圖像所著手,可是,這又是如何可能的?本文認為,除了讓教育自身自行向我們揮手,我們回應教育的方式則是審慎地等待被邀請而非直驅前行。故和一般知識論的做法不同,我們不是從已證成的知識出發,而是要回到主體問題的根源對人存在問題進行重新發問,這麼一來我們才能以不失真的方式,除了反顯人的存在性,也能將教育的存在意涵蘊生出來。
    Although the modern division of professional knowledge is already a research indicator for contemporary society, according to the topic, this paper will deal with it through interdisciplinary multidisciplinary, or cross-disciplinary strategy. Undoubtedly, the problem of education is inseparable from the problem of human beings, and in the discussion of this article, it is related to the issue of existence. So in the first chapter, we will propose the perspective about the problem of existence through its context and phenomenology because phenomenology can lead us to the core of the problem of human being’s existence naturally. In the transition from phenomenology to phenomenological psychology, we will mention the century debate between Heidegger and Husserl in the second chapter. In Merleau-Ponty's existential phenomenology, we would have respond to one phenomenology, but indeed are responding to individual phenomenological representations by placing essence back into existence (replace les essences dans l’existence). But when it comes to the problem of existence, it is actually a deep common world of others and the self. So in the third chapter, we must go back to the life-world (Lebenswelt) to figure out the human world constituted by human. Different from the humanism in the traditional meaning, when existentialism replaced the former after the Second World War, Merleau-Ponty, as the first person of Western Marxism, not only confronted the ideology advocated by Sartre, but also developed a specific implication of the humanity that was different from the latter in the real world. However, the specific meaning of the human world is not in any text definition. From the perspective of existential phenomenology, since human beings are subjects in the situation, people are doomed to encounter ethic problems in material situations. The implication of the humanity in the specific world can only be effectively explained by the practical action in the situation, i.e. situation ethics. Therefore, in the fourth chapter, we will use situation ethics as a bridge. We indirectly raise the challenges in education. That is, the situation of marginalized juveniles in the current education system and the practical conditions must be considered when we are going to provide assistance for them. Therefore, to explore the fundamental problem of human existence, it is neither the subject of human beings in the sense of psychology or psychoanalysis, nor the enlightenment or the humanistic meaning in the human science (Geisteswissenschaften). Of course, it is different from the subjective meaning discussed in the humane studies. Therefore, in the fifth chapter, the finale of this thesis is the educational meaning that can only be developed after completions of previous chapters. This is the invisible ontological dimension reflected from the visible phenomenon. In other words, when we obsessively continue developing modern education, what is the original experience of education? What is the starting point for us to develop modern education without hesitation? From this point of view, the possibility of education is based on the natural origin the material condition rather than the ideal human image (Menschenbild). But how is it possible? We believe that in addition to letting education itself wave to us, the way we respond to education is to wait cautiously for invitation rather than moving forward. Therefore, unlike the practice of epistemology, we are not starting from the knowledge that has been verified, but returning to the root of the subject problem, to re-examine the problem of human existence, so that, in addition to reflecting human existence, we are able to derive the existential meaning of education without distortion.
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    蘇懿禎(譯)(2015)。Sylviane Donnio著。我要吃小孩(Je mangerais bien un enfant)。臺北:阿布拉教育文化 。

    龔卓軍(譯)(1997)。知覺現象學序言(Phénoménologie de la perception. Avant-propos),載於臺灣現象學(頁135-157)。臺北:TMPC讀書會。

    龔卓軍(1998)。身體與想像的辯證:尼采、胡塞爾、梅洛龐蒂。 國立台灣大學哲學研究所博士論文, 未出版,臺北。

    龔卓軍(2006)。身體感。胡塞爾對身體的形構分析。應用心理研究,29,157-181 。

    龔卓軍(譯)(2010)。Maurice Merleau-Ponty著。眼與心(L’Œil et l’Esprit )。臺北:典藏。



    二、法文部分


    Donnio, S. (2004). Je Mangerais bien un enfant, Paris: L’ecole des loisirs.

    Gore, K. (1970). Sarte: La Nausée and Les Mouches, Edward Arnold.

    Merleau-Ponty, M. (2002). Une Philosophie de L’Ambiguité, in La structure du comportement (pp. v-xv), Édition Quadrige/Puf (Original work published 1942)

    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1945). Phénoménologie de La Perception, Éditions Gallimard.

    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1955). Sartre et l’ultra-bolchevisme, in Les Aventures de La Dialectique (pp. 136-280), Éditions Gallimard.

    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1960). Éloge de La Philosophie et Autres Essais, Éditions Gallimard (Original work published 1953).

    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1960). Le philosophe et son ombre, in Signes (pp. 259-295), Éditions Gallimard.

    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1960). L’Homme et L’Adversité, in Signes (pp. 365-396), Édition Gallimard.

    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1964). Le visible et l’invisible, Éditions Gallimard.

    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1964). L’Œil et l’Esprit , Éditions Gallimard.

    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1966). La Guerre a Eu Lieu, in Sens et Non-Sens (pp. 245-268), Paris: Les Éditions Nagel.

    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1996). Le Primat de La Perception, Éditions Verdier (Original work published 1933 & 1934).

    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1988). Les relations avec autrui chez l’enfant, in Merleau-Ponty à la Sorbonne. Résumé de cours 1949-1952 (pp. 303-396), Édition Cynara (Original work published 1949-1952).

    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1988). Les sciences de l’ home et la phénoménology, in Merleau-Ponty à la Sorbonne. Résumé de cours 1949-1952 (pp. 397-464), Édition Cynara (Original work published 1949-1952).

    Merleau-Ponty, M. (2000). Les Sciences de L’homme et La Phénoménologie, in Parcours deux 1951-1961(pp. 49-128), Éditions Verdier (Original work Published 1951-1961).

    Lacan, J. (1966). Écrit, Éditions Du Seuil.

    Lacan, J. (1990). Le Séminaire tome 11. Les quatre concepts fondamentaux de la psychanalyse, Édition Du Seuil (Original work published 1964).

    Lacan, J. (2001). Maurice Merleau-Ponty in Autres Écrits (pp.175-186), ed., Jacques-Alain Miller, Édition Du Seuil (Original work published 1961).

    Piaget, J. (1996). Le structuralisme, Presses Universitaires de France, 11e Édition, (Original work published 1968).

    Proust, M. (1919). Un amour de Swann, in Du côté de chez Swann, Édition Gallimard (Original work published 1913).

    Proust, M. (1954). À la recherché du temps perdu. I, édition établie et présentée, Pierre Clarac & André Ferré, Édition Gallimard (Original work published 1913).

    Husserl, E. (1989). La Philosophie comme science rigoureuse, Presses Universitaires de France (original work published 1911).

    Sarte, J.-P. (2001). Oeuvres romanesques, in La Nauseé (pp.8-210), Édition Gallimard, (Original work published 1938).

    Sarte, J.-P. (1988). L'etre et Le Néant : Essai d'ontologie Phenomenologique, Édition Gallimard (original work published 1943).

    Sartre, J.-P. (2005). Huis Clos. Pièce en un Acte, ed., Keith Gore, London & New York: Routledge (original work published 1944).

    Sartre, J.-P. (1970). L’existentialisme est un Humanism, Paris: Les Édition Nagel (original work published 1946).


    三、英文部分

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    Berman, M. (1982). All That is Solid Melts into Air: The Experience of Modernity, New York: Simon& Schuster.

    Bouriaud, N. (2009). The Radicant , New York: Lucas and Stenberg.

    Brentano, F. (1995). Descriptive Psychology, trans., Benito Müller, London: Routledge (Original work published 1982).

    Bullock, A. (2000). The Humanist Tradition in the West, London: Athena Press.

    Cassirer, E. (2000). The Logic of the Cultural Sciences, trans., S. G. Lofts, New Haven & London: Yale University Press (Original work published 1942).

    Dillon, M. C. (1997). Introduction Écart& Différence, in Écart& Différence:Merleau-Ponty and Derrida on Seeing and Writing (pp. 1-17), ed., Dillon, M. C., New Jersey: Humanities Press.

    Edwards, P. (1967). ed., in chief, The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, New York & London: The Macmillan Company & The Free Press and Collier Macmillan Limited.

    Ermarth, M. (1978). Wilhelm Dilthey: The Critique of Historical Reason, Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press.

    Escher, M. C. (2016). The Graphic Work, Slovakia: Taschen.

    Fletcher, J. F. (1966). Situation Ethics: A New Morality, Westminster: John Knox Press.

    Flynn, T. R. (2006). Existentialism: A Very Short Introduction, Oxfrod University Press.

    Goethe, J. W. (1950). Faust A Tragedy, trans., Bayard Taylor, New York: The Modern Library (Original work published 1808 & 1832).

    Heidegger, M. (1962). Being and Time, trans., John Macquarrie & Edward Robinson, Albany New York: State University of New York (Original work published 1927).

    Heidegger, M. (1977). Letter on Humanism, in Basic Writings: Nine Key Essays, plus the Introduction to Being and Time, trans., David Farrell Krell, New York & Hagerstown & San Francisco & London: Harper & Row, Publishers (Original work published 1927 & 1962)

    Heidegger, M. (1982). The Basic Problems of Phenomenology, trans., Albert Hofstadter, Indiana University Press (Original work published 1975).

    Hirst, P.H. & Peters, R. S. (1989). The Logic of Education, London ; New York : Routledge.

    Husserl, E. (1965). Phenomenology and the crisis of philosophy: Philosophy as rigorous science, and Philosophy and the crisis of European, trans., Quentin Lauer, New York: Hamper & Row (Original work published 1911)

    Husserl, E. (1970). Logical Investigations, trans., J. N. Findlay, London : Routledge & K. Paul and New York: Humanities Press (Original work published 1900).

    Husserl, E. (1970). The Crisis of European Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology. An Introduction to Phenomenological Philosophy, trans., David Carr, Evanston: Northwestern University Press (Original work published 1936).

    Husserl, E. (1973). Cartesian Meditations: An Introduction to Phenomenology, trans., Dorion Cairns, Martinus Nijhoff: The Hague (Original work published 1931)

    Husserl, E. (1973). Experience and Judgment. Investigations in a Genealogy of Logic, trans., James S. Churchill& Karl Ameriks, Evanston: Northwestern University Press (Original work published 1939).

    Husserl, E. (1977). Phenomenological Psychology: Lectures, Summer Semester, 1925, trans., John Scanlon, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff(Original work published 1962).

    Husserl, E. (1983). Ideas Pertaining to A Pure Phenomenology and to A Phenomenological Philosophy. First Book: General Introduction to A Pure Phenomenology, trans., F. Kersten, The Hague & Boston & Lancaster: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers (Original work published 1913).

    Husserl, E. (1989). Ideas Pertaining to a Pure Phenomenology and to a Phenomenological Philosophy. Book II, Studies in the Phenomenology of Constitution, trans., Richard Rojcewicz & André Schuwer, Dordrecht& Boston & London: Kluwer Academic Publishers (Original work published 1952).

    Husserl, E. (1997). Psychological and Transcendental Phenomenology and The Confrontation with Heidegger 1927-1931, ed., Thomas Sheehan & Richard E. Palmer, Dordrecht & Boston& London: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

    Kearney, R. (2003). Continental Philosophy in the 20th Century, England:Routledge.

    Kearney, R. (1988). The Wake of Imagination: Toward a Postmodern Culture, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

    Kierkegaard, S. (1962). Philosophical Fragments or A Fragment of Philosophy, trans., David Swenson, Princeton & New Jersey: Princeton University Press (Original work published 1844).

    Kockelmans, J. J. (1967). Edmund Husserl's Phenomenological Psychology: A Historic-Critical Study, Pittsbrugh, Pa. : Duquesne University Press, 1967.

    Koolhaas, R. (1994). Delirious New York: A Retroactive Manifesto for Manhattan, The Monacelli Press.

    Lacan, J. (1977). Écrit: A Selection, trans., Alan Sheridan, New York & London: W. W. Norton & Company. (Original work published 1966).

    Lacan, J. (1993). Merleau-Ponty: In Memoriam, in Merleau-Ponty and Psychology (pp. 73-81), trans., Wilfried Ver Eecke and Dirk de Schutter, ed., Keith Hoeller, New Jersey: Humanities Press. (Original work published 1961).

    Lacan, J. (1998). The Four fundamental Concepts of Psycho-Analysis, trans., Alan Sheridan, ed., Jacques Alain Miller, New York: Vintage (Original work published 1964).

    Landes, D. A. (2013). The Merleau-Ponty Dictionary, London& New Delhi & New York & Sydney: Bloomsbury.

    Lévians, E. (1985). Ethics and Infinity, trans., Richard A. Cohen, Pittsburgh: Duquesne Publisher (Original work published 1982).

    Maritain, J. (1943). Education At The Crossroads, New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1962). Phenomenology of Perception, trans., Colin Smith, London & Henley: Routledge & Kegan Paul, and New Jersey: The Humanities Press (Original work published 1945).

    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1963). Husserl at the Limits of Phenomenology, in Praise of Philosophy and Other Essays (pp. 181-191), trans., John Wild & James Edie& John O’Neill, Evanston: Northwestern University Press (Original work published 1953).

    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1963). A Philosophy of The Ambiguous, in The Structure of Behavior (pp. xviii-xxviii), trans., Alden L. Fisher, Boston: Beacon Press (Original work published 1942&1949).

    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1964). The Child’s Relations with Others, in The Primacy of Perception (pp.96-155), trans., William Cobb, ed., James M. Edie, Northwestern University Press.

    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1964). Phenomenology and the Sciences of Man, in The Primacy of Perception (pp. 43-95), trans., John Wild, ed., James M. Edie, Northwestern University Press.

    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1964). The Primacy of Perception and Its Philosophical Consequences, in The Primacy of Perception (pp.12-42), trans., James M. Edie, ed., James M. Edie, Northwestern University Press.

    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1964). The Philosopher and His Shadows, in Sings (pp.159-181), trans., Richard McCleary, Evanston: Northwestern University Press (Original work published 1960).

    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1964). Man and Adversity, in Signs (pp. 224-243), trans., Richard C. McCleary, Northwestern University Press (Original work published 1960).

    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1964), The Battle over Existentialism, in Sense and Non-Sense (pp. 71-82), trans., Hubert L. Dreyfus & Patricia Allen Dreyfus, Northwestern University Press (Original work published 1966).

    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1964). Hegel’s Existentialism, in Sense and Non-Sense (pp.63-70), trans., Hubert L. Dreyfus & Patricia Allen Dreyfus, Northwestern University Press (Original work published 1966).

    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1964). The War Has Taken Place, in Sense and Non-Sense (pp. 139-152), trans., Hubert L. Dreyfus & Patricia Allen Dreyfus, Northwestern University Press (Original work published 1966).

    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1964). Eye and Mind, in The Primacy of Perception: And other Essays on Phenomenological Psychology, the Philosophy of Art, History and Politics (pp.159-190), trans., Carleton Dallery, ed., James M. Edie, Evanston: Northwestern University Press (Original work published 1964).

    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1968). Visible and Invisible, trans., Alphonso Lingis, ed., Claude Lefort, Evanston: Northwestern University Press (Original work published 1964).

    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1969). Humanism and Terror. An Essay on the Communist Problem, Boston: Beacon Press (Original work published 1947)

    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1993). Eye and Mind, in The Merleau-Ponty Aesthetics Reader: Philosophy and Painting (pp.121-149), trans., Galen A. Johnson& Michael B. Smith, Evanston: Northwestern University Press (Original work published 1964).

    Merleau-Ponty, M. (2010). Structure and Conflicts in child Consciousness 1949-1950, in Child Psychology and Pedagogy: The Sorbonne Lectures 1949-1952 (p.131-194), trans., Talia Welsh, Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press (Original work published 1949-1950).

    Merleau-Ponty, M. (2010). Human Sciences and Phenomenology (1950-1952), in Child Psychology and Pedagogy. The Sorbonne Lectures 1949-1952 (pp. 316-372), trans., James M. Edie, Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press (Original work published 1950-1952).

    Merleau-Ponty, M. (2010). The Child’s Relations with Others (1950-1951), in Child Psychology and Pedagogy. The Sorbonne Lectures 1949-1952 (pp.241-315), trans., Talia Welsh, Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press (Original work published 1950-1951).

    Mohanty, J. N. (1982). Husserl and Frege, Indiana University Press.

    Moran, D. (2000). Introduction to phenomenology, London & New York: Routledge.

    Morris, P. E. & Hampson, P. J. (1983). Imagery and Consciousness, Lodon & New York: Academic Press.

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    Neill, A. S. (1968). Summerhill, Penguin Books.

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    Pascal, B. (1910/1938). Thoughts, trans., W. F. Trotter, New York: P.F. Collier & Son Corporation (Original work published 1910).

    Proust, M. (2003). Swann’s Way. In Search of Lost Time Volume I. trans., C.K. Scott Moncrieff &Terence Kilmartin, New York: The Modern Library (Original work published 1911).

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    Zakaria, F. (2015). In Defense of A Liberal Education, Unabridged Edition: Simon & Schuster Audio.
    Description: 博士
    國立政治大學
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    981525021
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0981525021
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    DOI: 10.6814/DIS.NCCU.EDU.016.2018.F02
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