本研究的主要目的在於深入探討父母對孩子考試表現之歸因模式，並據以編製一份考試表現歸因量表，接著初步分析父母考試表現歸因與父母考試焦慮及父母考試態度之關聯。研究方法首先深入探訪16位國小、國中及高中學生家長。訪談大綱主要探討家長對於子女考試表現的解釋方式及看法，並詢問其認為子女考試表現不理想的內在因素、是否穩定及可能類推至其他生活表現的普遍程度，再將訪談資料進行內容分析以編製「考試表現歸因量表」。在完成量表預試程序後，最後以495位學生家長（354位母親、141位父親）為樣本，進行驗證性因素分析，檢驗量表之信度與效度。研究結果發現：「考試表現歸因量表」具有良好的信度與穩定的因素結構；另外，父母對子女考試表現歸因與父母考試焦慮及父母考試態度呈現顯著的正相關。 The main purpose of this study was to deeply explore parental attribution style for their children's exam performance, to develop an Exam Performance Attribution Scale, and to initially analyze the relationship between parents' attribution of exam performance, parental test anxiety and parental test attitudes. In this study, the authors tried to understand parental explanatory style and viewpoints about their children's exam performance, including internal attribution, stable attribution and global attribution, and further developed the Exam Performance Attribution Scale according to sixteen in-depth interviews with the parents. After revision from pretest, 495 parents (354 mothers and 143 fathers) were used to test the reliability and validity of this developed scale. The findings suggested that the Exam Performance Attribution Scale demonstrated the good reliability estimate and the stable factor construct. Moreover, the Exam Performance Attribution Scale was significantly related to parental test anxiety and parental test attitudes.